Esfahan


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Esfahan

(ĕsfähän`) or

Isfahan

(ĭs`fəhän), anc. Aspadana, city (1991 pop. 1,127,030), capital of Esfahan prov., central Iran, on the Zayandeh River. The city is located on a high plain at the foot of the Zagros Mts., where the nearby peaks are c.1,400 ft (430 m) high. The Zayandeh River flows from the High Zagros to water an oasis, a large fertile plain c.20 mi (32 km) wide and 40 mi (64 km) long. An ancient and picturesque city, rich in history, Esfahan has long been known for its fine carpets, hand-printed textiles, and metalwork, chiefly silver filigree. It has modern textile and steel mills and oil refineries. A noteworthy city in Sassanid times, Esfahan passed to the Arabs in the mid-7th cent. and served as a provincial capital. In the 11th cent. it was captured by the Seljuk Turks, who made it (1051) the capital of their empire. In the early 13th cent. Esfahan was taken by the Mongols. Timur conquered the city in 1388 and, after its inhabitants rebelled, slaughtered c.70,000 persons in revenge; it is said that he built a large hill with the skulls of the dead. Under Shah Abbas I, who made (1598) Esfahan his capital, the city was embellished with many fine buildings—notably the beautiful imperial mosque, one of the masterpieces of world architecture; the lovely Lutfullah mosque; and a great royal palace. Shah Abbas founded the Julfa quarter, located across the Zayandeh River, by transferring Armenians from N Persia to that section. At its zenith, under the Safavid dynasty in the 17th cent., Esfahan had a population of c.600,000, making it one of the world's great cities of the time. However, the city declined rapidly after it was captured (1723) by the Afghans, who massacred most of its inhabitants. Russian troops occupied Esfahan in 1916. The city is the site of the Univ. of Esfahan. The name also appears as Ispahan.

Isfahan

, Eşfahan
a city in central Iran: the second largest city in the country; capital of Persia in the 11th century and from 1598 to 1722. Pop.: 1 547 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Prosecutor Ali Esfahani said police in Esfahan have been ordered to warn women against biking.
A Persian proverb cited Esfahan nesf-e- jahan ast, meaning Esfahan is half of the world.
The present study was conducted in four villages (Islamabad, Gishi, Vartoon and Parvaneh-Aliabadchi), 50 to 95 km from Esfahan City, Esfahan Province, Iran from April to November 2011.
"The female player, Farah Abdul-Karim had scored a golden medal for shooting from 10 meters on the 2nd day of the Esfahan International Competition, scoring 378 points, after a difficult competition against the Iranian players, who have an exceptional experience in such international championships," Sport Reporter, Khalil al-Janaby told Aswat al-Iraq news agency on Monday.
In Esfahan, last year's finalists Zob Ahan fought back from a goal down to a score a 2-1 victory over lEmirates Club at Foolad Shahr Stadium on Wednesday.
The University of Sistan and Balochistan in Zahedan, Shahid Bahonar University of Kemran, Esfahan University and Tehran University hosted meetings for the caravan.
Emad joined the Whites' forces on a free transfer from Iran's Sepahan Esfahan in the summer and was tipped to shine by manager Hossam Hassan.
Iran's Esfahan Steel Company has issued tenders for USD 65 million expansions at one of its rolling mills with a deadline for bids of August 21st 2010.
Elaborating on the details of the loan, Jamali said that International Islamic Trade Finance Corporation (ITFC), an IDB affiliated, has approved a $35 loan to be granted to Esfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.
Mobarakeh Steel (the major flat products producer) made 42% of this, Khozestan Steel (semis producer) 27% and Esfahan Steel (longs producer) 22%.
The seven wonders featured are The Grand Mosque in Mecca; the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem; The Alhambra in Granada, Spain; The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey; The Great Mosque of Djenne in Mali; the Imam Mosque in Esfahan, Iran; and the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan.
Summary: At Palestine Square, opposite a mosque called Al-Aqsa, is a synagogue where Jews of Esfahan gather at dawn.