Esfahan

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Esfahan

(ĕsfähän`) or

Isfahan

(ĭs`fəhän), anc. Aspadana, city (1991 pop. 1,127,030), capital of Esfahan prov., central Iran, on the Zayandeh River. The city is located on a high plain at the foot of the Zagros Mts., where the nearby peaks are c.1,400 ft (430 m) high. The Zayandeh River flows from the High Zagros to water an oasis, a large fertile plain c.20 mi (32 km) wide and 40 mi (64 km) long. An ancient and picturesque city, rich in history, Esfahan has long been known for its fine carpets, hand-printed textiles, and metalwork, chiefly silver filigree. It has modern textile and steel mills and oil refineries. A noteworthy city in Sassanid times, Esfahan passed to the Arabs in the mid-7th cent. and served as a provincial capital. In the 11th cent. it was captured by the Seljuk Turks, who made it (1051) the capital of their empire. In the early 13th cent. Esfahan was taken by the Mongols. Timur conquered the city in 1388 and, after its inhabitants rebelled, slaughtered c.70,000 persons in revenge; it is said that he built a large hill with the skulls of the dead. Under Shah Abbas I, who made (1598) Esfahan his capital, the city was embellished with many fine buildings—notably the beautiful imperial mosque, one of the masterpieces of world architecture; the lovely Lutfullah mosque; and a great royal palace. Shah Abbas founded the Julfa quarter, located across the Zayandeh River, by transferring Armenians from N Persia to that section. At its zenith, under the Safavid dynasty in the 17th cent., Esfahan had a population of c.600,000, making it one of the world's great cities of the time. However, the city declined rapidly after it was captured (1723) by the Afghans, who massacred most of its inhabitants. Russian troops occupied Esfahan in 1916. The city is the site of the Univ. of Esfahan. The name also appears as Ispahan.

Isfahan

, Eşfahan
a city in central Iran: the second largest city in the country; capital of Persia in the 11th century and from 1598 to 1722. Pop.: 1 547 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
1) MA Student of Sociology, Dehaghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran
Bahrain's win yesterday ensured them of a better finish than in the previous Asian championship, held in 2008 in Esfahan, Iran, when they missed a berth in the semi-finals.
CLOUGH'S CHARMER: Portmeirion is listed in British Airways' High Life magazine as the most glorious, surreal place in the North Wales hills, a playful celebration of architecture and landscape; THE REAL DEAL: Causeway Coast, Northern Ireland, left, Esfahan, Iran, and Hastings, right
The three ranking points that he earned while winning at the F1 and F2 ITF Futures in Esfahan, Iran hoisted him up to a career-high singles ranking of 1263 at the beginning of September.
Corresponding Author: Ahmadreza Hamsian, Department of Political science, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran
Reza Jafari, Esfahan Health Research Station, National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran.