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Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.



in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Micali et al., "On a fatal case of Candida krusei pleural empiema in a pregnant woman with spontaneous esophageal perforation," Mycopatholgia, vol.
It is very unusual for a child with esophageal perforation complicated by mediastinitis, empyema, and sepsis to survive for more than ten days without surgery.
Kaman, "Personal management of 57 consecutive patients with esophageal perforation," American Journal of Surgery, vol.
Therefore, in patients with a history of endoscopy, a mediastinal abscess and/or mediastinitis (rare complications of esophageal perforation) should be considered during differential diagnosis.
Cervical, thoracic, and abdominal CT scan with oral and intravenous contrast is currently the modality of choice in the assessment of esophageal perforation with a sensitivity of 92 to 100% [6].
[13.] Fadoo F, Ruiz DE, Dawn SK, Webb WR, Gotway MB (2004) Helical CT esophagography for the evaluation of suspected esophageal perforation or rupture.".
However, no obvious signs of esophageal perforation or inflammation were detected.
Given the increasing risk of esophageal perforation due to pressure necrosis as time passed, a decision was made to push the dentures into the gastric cavity with extreme care.
Andaz and Sainathan's analysis of 35 cases of esophageal perforation from 22 studies.
When not placed carefully, esophageal perforation can occur.
([section][section]) The remaining two deaths likely were associated with button types because of similarities in the incident scenarios (e.g., nonspecific symptoms with delayed diagnosis or a battery lodged in the esophagus) or causes of death (e.g., esophageal perforation with bleeding).
Esophageal perforation following external blunt trauma.