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examination of the inner surface of the esophagus with a special instrument, esophagoscope, which is equipped with an optical system. The esophagoscope is introduced through the mouth under local or general anesthesia. Esophagoscopy is used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is helpful in detecting tumors and other diseases of the esophagus, as well as the cicatricial narrowing of the esophageal lumen. Esophagoscopy is also used in taking a biopsy, performing bougienage, and locating and removing a foreign body. The once widely used rigid steel esophagoscopes were replaced in the 1970’s by flexible and less traumatic fiberscopes.