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(vertebrate zoology)
The pikes, a family of fishes in the order Clupeiformes characterized by an elongated beaklike snout and sharp teeth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a family of fishes of the suborder Esocidei. The body is sagittate and reaches 1.5 m in length and 35 kg in weight. The head is large, and the snout extremely elongated and flattened on top. The teeth are located on the intermaxillary bones, vomer, palatal bones, lower jaw, and tongue. The mandibular teeth are dagger-shaped. The gill membranes are not fused. The operculum is rectangular and elongate. Small scales cover the body and head.

The family contains a single genus, Esox (pike), with the two subgenera Esox and Kenoza, which embrace five extant species. The northern pike (E. lucius) is distributed in northern waters of Europe, Asia, and America, and the Amur pike (E. reicherti) inhabits the basin of the Amur and bodies of water on Sakhalin Island. The muskellunge (E. masquinongy), the common pickerel (E. niger), and the redfin pickerel (E. americanus) are found only in eastern North America.

The Esocidae inhabit fresh or slightly brackish waters with rich vegetation. They feed on other fishes, including their own young, as well as frogs, small rodents, and swimming birds. They reach sexual maturity in three to four years. The fish spawn in early spring and early summer near the coast in shallows (0.4–1 m). They deposit 17,500–215,000 roe on coastal plants. The eggs adhere to the plants and in two or three days fall to the bottom and develop there. The Esocidae are popular commercial fish. In some places, for example, in the Byelorussian SSR, they are farmed.

The Esocidae are known in fossil form from the Oligocene.


Berg, L. S. Ryby presnykh vod SSSR i sopredel’nykh stran, 4th ed., part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Nikol’skii, G. V. Chastnaia ikhtiologiia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1971.
Sychevskaia, E. K. Iskopaemye shchukovidnye SSSR i Mongolii. Moscow, 1976. (Trudy Paleontologicheskogo instituto AN SSSR, vol. 156.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of static magnetic field on the hatching success, growth, mortality, and yolk-sac absorption of larval northern pike Esox lucius.
Bucke, "The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the carnivorous fish the pike Esox lucius L.," Journal of Fish Biology, vol.
Effect of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Nothern pike (Esox lucius L.).
Esox affinis = Esox niger Lesueur: Chain Pickerel, Jackfish; p.
In terms of metabolic changes, some fish such as northern pike, Esox lucius, and golden perch, Macquaria ambigua, use lipids as a primary and early source of energy during starvation (Ince and Thorpe, 1976; Collins and Anderson, 1995), whereas others such as red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, use muscle protein (Rueda et al., 1998).
2B), pike Esox lucius (35%) and roach (27%) were more important than gudgeon (16%) and stickleback (8%), their relative biomass importance being influenced by a few large individuals.
Thermal behaviour of bone apatite of Recent pike (Esox lucius L.).
For example, northern pike (Esox lucius) and spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) were first and last collected in 1976 from Indian Lake.
We collected several top predators near Site 4, including largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and northern pike Esox lucius, that were not collected elsewhere in the basin.
Sex determination techniques by using external urogenital morphology have been developed for some of the mesothermal (coolwater) teleosts, including members of the ecosid family such as northern pikes Esox lucius and muskellunge E.