(redirected from Esox)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.


(vertebrate zoology)
The pikes, a family of fishes in the order Clupeiformes characterized by an elongated beaklike snout and sharp teeth.



a family of fishes of the suborder Esocidei. The body is sagittate and reaches 1.5 m in length and 35 kg in weight. The head is large, and the snout extremely elongated and flattened on top. The teeth are located on the intermaxillary bones, vomer, palatal bones, lower jaw, and tongue. The mandibular teeth are dagger-shaped. The gill membranes are not fused. The operculum is rectangular and elongate. Small scales cover the body and head.

The family contains a single genus, Esox (pike), with the two subgenera Esox and Kenoza, which embrace five extant species. The northern pike (E. lucius) is distributed in northern waters of Europe, Asia, and America, and the Amur pike (E. reicherti) inhabits the basin of the Amur and bodies of water on Sakhalin Island. The muskellunge (E. masquinongy), the common pickerel (E. niger), and the redfin pickerel (E. americanus) are found only in eastern North America.

The Esocidae inhabit fresh or slightly brackish waters with rich vegetation. They feed on other fishes, including their own young, as well as frogs, small rodents, and swimming birds. They reach sexual maturity in three to four years. The fish spawn in early spring and early summer near the coast in shallows (0.4–1 m). They deposit 17,500–215,000 roe on coastal plants. The eggs adhere to the plants and in two or three days fall to the bottom and develop there. The Esocidae are popular commercial fish. In some places, for example, in the Byelorussian SSR, they are farmed.

The Esocidae are known in fossil form from the Oligocene.


Berg, L. S. Ryby presnykh vod SSSR i sopredel’nykh stran, 4th ed., part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Nikol’skii, G. V. Chastnaia ikhtiologiia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1971.
Sychevskaia, E. K. Iskopaemye shchukovidnye SSSR i Mongolii. Moscow, 1976. (Trudy Paleontologicheskogo instituto AN SSSR, vol. 156.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Typically, Froude efficiency increases with increasing swimming speed and then plateaus, as observed in Esox spp.
the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Larsson and Lewander, 1973), the pike, Esox lucius (Ince and Thorpe, 1976), the toadfish, Opsanus tau (Tashima and Cahill, 1968), the goldfish, Carassius auratus (Chavin and Young, 1970), and the American eel, Anguilla rostrata (Moon, 1983).
IDNR Scientific name 1970-1976 Esocidae, pickerel & pikes Esox americanus, Grass pickerel E.
4 mmol/L (24), y menores en comparacion con Brycon amazonicus (11), Gadus morhua (29) y Esox lucios L (30) (314.
2005), while other studies have detected high genetic diversity despite appearing to originate from a single source (northern pike, Esox lucius, Aguilar et al.
Successful extractions of sufficient quantities of genomic DNA from surface mucous of freshwater fishes have been reported for Saline trutta fario (brown trout), Esox lucius (northern pike) (Livia et al.
Esox and Umbra have paired rostrodermethmoids (sensu Sanford, 2000) fused with paired endoskeletal structures.
Class Osteichthyes Order Salmoniformes Family Esocidae (Pikes) Esox sp.
Now, the intriguingly named Msr Lebegue Jones is hoping for good omens, a fair wind and following tide to speed his boat, The Esox, onwards and upwards from Barmouth to Fort William in Scotland.
Prey handling time in two piscivores, Esox americanus vermiculatus and Micropterus salmoides, with contrasting mouth morphologies.