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(ĕspərän`tō), an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent. it was taught in schools and universities throughout the world, but it has not received wide acceptance as an international language. Its grammar and lexicon are relatively unfamiliar to users who do not know other Indo-European languages; its syntax, spelling, and pronunciation are influenced especially by Slavonic. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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See E. Schor, Bridge of Words: Esperanto and the Dream of a Universal Language (2016).



the most widely used of the artificial languages; an auxiliary means of international communication.

Esperanto was created in 1887 by L. Zamenhof, a physician who lived in Warsaw; the language derives its name from his pseudonym, Dr. Esperanto (literally, “one who hopes”). Esperanto makes use of roots from the European languages; when combined with any of several dozen affixes, the roots become designations for a wide variety of concepts. International Esperanto congresses, under the auspices of the Universala Esperanto-Asocio (Universal Esperanto Association), have been held annually since 1905; the organization Mondpaca Esperantista Movado (Movement of Esperantists for World Peace) also exists.

Literary works, translations, collections of original scholarly works, and several dozen journals are published in Esperanto. The many translations into Esperanto include the Bible, Vergil’s Aeneid, Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Goethe’s Faust, A. S. Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin, and V. V. Mayakovsky’s At the Top of My Voice.


Sergeev, I. V. Osnovy esperanto. Moscow, 1961.
Problemy interlingvistiki. Moscow, 1976.
Bokarev, E. A. Esperanto russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1974.
Manders, W. Interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio. Purmerend, 1950.
Zamenhof, L. L. Fundamenta kreslomatio de la lingvo Esperanto, 17th ed. Rickmansworth, 1954.
Esperanto anlologio: Poemoj 1887–1957. La Laguna, 1958.
Waringhier, G. Plena ilustrita vortaro de Esperanto. Paris, 1970.



an international artificial language based on words common to the chief European languages, invented in 1887
References in periodicals archive ?
Nearly as soon as Zamenhof released Esperanto to the world,
So with the addition of the 16 million people reported to be speaking it, Esperanto is certainly becoming widely used.
Would any of your readers who have information about the use of Esperanto locally contact us at the address below?
We would be grateful if any your readers who have information about the use of Esperanto locally contact us at the address below.
I communicate with them in Esperanto on Facebook, Skype and Twitter.
Zamenhof was unfamiliar with English and so the first translation of his book on Esperanto into English was performed by "a well-meaning German volunteer, who produced choice manglings such as 'The reader will doubtless take with mistrust this opuscule in hand, deeming that he has it here to do with some irrealizable utopy'".
The 0% known condition contained 10 cards with all unknown Esperanto words, which were presented in sequence three times.
His is a realm at once timeless and anachronistic; as with Esperanto, the elements are primary and general, though the poems evoke a rich, particular world.
Internet service provider MSN said the 43million messages sent every day in Britain have created a new "globespeak" language, mixing everything from Shakespeare and hip-hop to rap and Esperanto.
the United States, China, Russia & Brazil broadcast in Esperanto, as
Aside from his more than 300 musical works, he was a painter, poet, and calligrapher who studied sign language as well as Esperanto, an international language invented in the late 1800s.
I quickly abandoned my plan of focusing on the Argentinean crisis and began to settle for almost any session I could find, excluding only the more obscure ones on topics like Esperanto and--don't ask--aluminum.