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(ĕspərän`tō), an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent. it was taught in schools and universities throughout the world, but it has not received wide acceptance as an international language. Its grammar and lexicon are relatively unfamiliar to users who do not know other Indo-European languages; its syntax, spelling, and pronunciation are influenced especially by Slavonic. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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See E. Schor, Bridge of Words: Esperanto and the Dream of a Universal Language (2016).



the most widely used of the artificial languages; an auxiliary means of international communication.

Esperanto was created in 1887 by L. Zamenhof, a physician who lived in Warsaw; the language derives its name from his pseudonym, Dr. Esperanto (literally, “one who hopes”). Esperanto makes use of roots from the European languages; when combined with any of several dozen affixes, the roots become designations for a wide variety of concepts. International Esperanto congresses, under the auspices of the Universala Esperanto-Asocio (Universal Esperanto Association), have been held annually since 1905; the organization Mondpaca Esperantista Movado (Movement of Esperantists for World Peace) also exists.

Literary works, translations, collections of original scholarly works, and several dozen journals are published in Esperanto. The many translations into Esperanto include the Bible, Vergil’s Aeneid, Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Goethe’s Faust, A. S. Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin, and V. V. Mayakovsky’s At the Top of My Voice.


Sergeev, I. V. Osnovy esperanto. Moscow, 1961.
Problemy interlingvistiki. Moscow, 1976.
Bokarev, E. A. Esperanto russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1974.
Manders, W. Interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio. Purmerend, 1950.
Zamenhof, L. L. Fundamenta kreslomatio de la lingvo Esperanto, 17th ed. Rickmansworth, 1954.
Esperanto anlologio: Poemoj 1887–1957. La Laguna, 1958.
Waringhier, G. Plena ilustrita vortaro de Esperanto. Paris, 1970.



an international artificial language based on words common to the chief European languages, invented in 1887
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Nearly as soon as Zamenhof released Esperanto to the world,
Native Esperanto speakers, people who have used the language from birth, include world chess champion, Susan Polger, Ulrich Brandenberg, the new German Ambassador to Russia and Nobel Laureate, Daniel Bovet.
Kuehn-Malvezzi chose the international language Esperanto, invented by Polish Doctor Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof in 1887, as they found interesting similarities between it and modern art and how it is perceived by the general public.
In the introduction to the book, Vos outlines her vision for 'nothing less than having every elementary school teacher being empowered to teach Esperanto as a first language other than English' (Vos, 2009, p.
About two to three million people speak Esperanto worldwide.
8) Zamenhof attributed the invention of Esperanto to the tensions in his hometown:
The choice seems calculated, as the innermost chapters reveal she is actually more studied and proficient in Esperanto.
The creator of Esperanto was born to a Jewish family in Bialystok in Poland, then under Russian rule.
The first section comprises 124 pages of auxiliary material such as a brief history of English; a style manual; a section discussing five Western languages; alphabets for Braille, the American Manual Alphabet, Esperanto, Morse code, and Semaphore; and multiple choice vocabulary inventories (with answers) for grades 3 through 12, and college level.
7 offers updated translation software for French braille as well as the following English braille codes: Braille Authority of North America, Braille Authority of the United Kingdom, and Unified English Braille; in addition to new translation and templates for European Braille Union/EC Pharma and Esperanto.
Do you think languages like Esperanto could be a solution for Europe?
Dr Lazarus Zamenhof invented the artificial language Esperanto in 1878.