Pigs fed with Tenebrio molitor diet tended to show increased SID of DM, total energy, CP, total AAs, the rest of essential AAs
(Lys, Met, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, and His), and the rest of nonessential AAs (Asp, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Tyr, and Pro) than pigs fed meat meal, poultry meal, or fish meal diet.
In computing ideal protein ratio, lysine is kept as reference AA and all other essential AAs
are taken as percentage to lysine due to various reasons.
While comparing the AA contents of products from yeast and bacterial fermentations (Song et al., 2008) it is found that among the essential AAs
isoleucine and methionine amounts did not change significantly after fermentation (both bacterial and yeast fermentations), whereas during bacterial fermentation cysteine decreases.
For essential AA
, the SID for all AA in fish meal were greater than in Prosin and Protide (p < 0.05), but no significant differences were found between Prosin and Protide.
The concept of the ideal protein allows for a rapid estimation of requirements for essential AA
once the requirement for one AA, typically Lys, has been established.
(2010), who found that FSBM and SPC contained higher protein, most of essential AA
, and lower soybean antigen proteins than untreated raw SBM.
The AA proportion of the mixture was calculated based on the optimum essential AA
composition (Fraser et al., 1991).
Comparison of in vitro and in vivo digestibility of CP and AA in 10 nursery pig diets (1) Items (%) In vitro In vivo SE (2) CP * 91.25 84.61 2.38 EAA (essential AA
) * Arg 90.25 80.97 3.25 His 87.60 78.82 2.14 Ile 93.82 84.75 2.52 Leu 91.71 83.10 4.05 Lys 94.56 82.44 3.02 Met 90.88 81.53 2.09 Phe 87.21 78.47 3.44 Thr 89.20 76.43 3.80 Val 92.77 80.83 2.99 NEAA (non-essential AA) * Ala 91.68 81.00 2.95 Asp 90.56 82.96 3.02 Cys 92.38 79.53 2.44 Glu 90.81 80.20 3.56 Gly 89.54 77.74 4.01 Pro 89.76 74.48 2.10 Ser 91.79 77.21 2.74 Tyr 92.76 80.82 2.56 (1) Each mean represents 40 observations for in vivo and in vitro, respectively.
The consequences of essential AAs
on milk protein synthesis and the mTOR signaling pathway have been extensively studied .