Puebla

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Puebla,

city (1990 pop. 1,007,170), capital of Puebla state, E central Mexico. Its official name is Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza, in honor of Gen. Ignacio Zaragoza, who defeated French forces there in 1862. Located in a highland valley, it is an important agricultural, commercial, and manufacturing center, as well as a popular tourist spot. The site of Mexico's first textile factory, Puebla's industries include automobiles and automobile parts, textiles, chemicals, pottery, and food; onyx is quarried. The city is noted for the colored tiles that decorate its buildings and those of nearby Cholula as well.

Puebla has hundreds of churches and many colonial buildings, and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. The cathedral, built between 1552 and 1649 and located on the Zócalo, Puebla's central plaza, is one of the finest in Mexico. The Rosary Chapel of the Church of Santo Domingo, constructed between 1571 and 1659, is one of the finest examples of the Spanish Baroque in Mexico. Puebla's Teatro Principal, constructed in 1760 and twice rebuilt, is said to be the oldest theater on the continent.

Founded c.1535 as Puebla de los Ángeles, the city was historically a link between the coast and Mexico City. It was taken (1847) by U.S. Gen. Winfield Scott during the Mexican War. French troops captured Puebla in 1863 but were ousted by Porfirio Díaz in 1867.


Puebla

(pwā`blä), state (1990 pop. 4,126,101), 13,126 sq mi (33,996 sq km), E central Mexico. The city of PueblaPuebla,
city (1990 pop. 1,007,170), capital of Puebla state, E central Mexico. Its official name is Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza, in honor of Gen. Ignacio Zaragoza, who defeated French forces there in 1862.
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 is the capital. The state is almost entirely mountainous, with large valleys between its ranges. N Puebla is dominated by the Sierra Madre Oriental, and a volcanic belt stretches across the central part of the state. Mexico's three highest peaks—CitlaltépetlCitlaltépetl
or Orizaba
, peak, 18,700 ft (5,700 m) high, in the Cordillera de Anáhuas, E Mexico, on the Veracruz-Puebla border. It is the highest peak in Mexico and the third highest in North America.
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 in the east and PopocatépetlPopocatépetl
[Aztec,=smoking mountain], volcano, 17,887 ft (5,452 m) high, in the Cordillera de Anáhuac, central Mexico, on the Puebla-Mexico state border; the second highest peak in Mexico.
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 and IztaccíhuatlIztaccíhuatl
, Ixtacíhuatl,
or Ixtaccíhuatl
[Aztec,=white woman], dormant volcano, 17,160 ft (5,230 m) high, central Mexico, on the border between Puebla and Mexico state.
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 in the west—border on Puebla. The state's extreme northeastern section lies on the humid coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico; the southern part is in drier upland valleys. Differences in climate and elevation permit the cultivation of a variety of agricultural products, although corn and cereal grains are dominant. Stock raising is also important. The majority of the state's population is engaged in agriculture. Puebla has a diverse industrial sector as well, including automobile, textile, and various light manufacturing. The state's resources include gold, silver, copper, and lead, but mining is not significantly developed. Puebla also has the potential for a lumbering industry. Communications within the state are excellent. Puebla was the epicenter of a earthquake in 1973 that caused significant damage in the state.

Puebla

 

a state in Mexico, in the southern part of the Meseta Central. Area, 33,900 sq km; population, 2.5 million (1970). The city of Puebla is the capital. The principal branch of the economy is agriculture, with crop cultivation predominating (corn, rice, wheat, kidney beans, agave). Sugarcane, coffee, and citrus fruits are the chief plantation crops. There are textile (mainly cotton), food (chiefly sugar), and leather-footwear industries. Puebla also has automotive-assembly enterprises. In the Necaxa River basin there is a hydroelectric power plant.


Puebla

 

a city in Mexico, in the southern part of the Meseta Central. Capital of the state of Puebla. Population, 401,600 (1970, according to precise data). Highway and railroad junction.

Puebla is one of Mexico’s most important industrial and cultural centers. A center for the cotton industry, the city also has the country’s largest food and leather-footwear industries. In addition, there are enterprises for automotive assembly. Puebla has two universities.

Puebla was founded in 1531. The grid street plan (architect A. Camacho, 16th century) has been preserved from colonial times, as have residences, 86 churches, parks, and fountains. The structures are decorated with polychrome tiles and carvings—typical features of the Puebla architectural school. The imposing cathedral (main part, 1555–1649, architect F. Becerra) and the monasteries of Santo Domingo (church, 1571–1611, architect Becerra and others) and San Francisco (church, 1538–1767) are mainly in the Renaissance style but also combine elements of the Gothic and baroque styles. Among the baroque structures in Puebla are the churches of Guadeloupe (1694–1714), La Compañia (1746–67, architect J. M. de Santa Maria), and Nuestra Señora de la Luz (1761–1820), as well as the Casa de Alfeñique (now the Museum of the State of Puebla, 1760–90) and other residences of the 16th to 18th centuries. The J. L. Bello y Gonzales Art Museum is located in Puebla.

To the west of Puebla is Cholula, whose pyramid dates from Toltec times and is the largest in Mexico (length of the foundation, 440 m; height, 77 m). Situated at the pyramid’s top are the church of La Virgen de los Remedios (1554; rebuilt in 1874) and the San Gabriel Monastery (church, 1549–52).

REFERENCES

Martinez, A. Puebla, Colonial Relicarium of America. Puebla [1939].
Maza, F. de la. La ciudadde Cholula y sus iglesias. Mexico City, 1959.

Puebla

1. an inland state of S central Mexico, situated on the Anáhuac Plateau. Capital: Puebla. Pop.: 5 070 346 (2000 est.). Area: 33 919 sq. km (13 096 sq. miles)
2. a city in S Mexico, capital of Puebla state: founded in 1532; university (1537). Pop.: 1 880 000 (2005 est.)
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