Khapra beetle, Total esterases
, Insecticide resistance, Carboxyl esterases
, Pyrethroid insecticide.
Bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce extracellular enzymes, i.e., laccases and esterases
. The ability of the isolates to utilize substrates such as lignin and tween 20 exhibited their ability to produce the respective enzymes .
We found statistically significant correlations between increased resistance to 5-fluorocytosine and higher enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase, chymotrypsin, and alpha-glucosidase; increased resistance to fluconazole and higher enzymatic activity of esterase
and beta-glucosidase as well as increased susceptibility to ketoconazole and higher enzymatic activity of cystine arylamidase; increased susceptibility to fluconazole and higher enzymatic activity of mannosidase.
production was assayed using the Tween agar plate (0.5% yeast extract, 1% peptone, 0.01% Ca[Cl.sub.2], 1.5% agar, and 0.1% Tween 80, pH 7.0) according to Aktas et al.
Karegoudar, "Initial degradation of dimethylphthalate by esterases
from Bacillusspecies," FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.
Unexpected acetylcholinesterase activity of cocaine esterases
. J Am Chem Soc 2006;128(48):15364-15365.
Mode of action of acetylxylan esterases
on acetyl glucuronoxylan and acetylated oligosaccharides generated by a GH10 endoxylanase.
These results suggest that enhanced metabolism by esterase
was not a major factor of resistance in varroa mite populations of northern Florida.
Specific inhibitor tests for the biochemical and functional classification of esterases
by PAGE have distinguished carboxylesterases (Est-2, Est-3, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9, Est-10, and Est-16 isozymes) and acetylesterases (Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est14, Est-15 isozymes) in grapes (ORASMO et al., 2007).
The activity of esterases
in the gut was reduced in chlorpyrifos exposed termite worker, whereas proteases and cellulases in these workers remained non- significant with their control treatments.
Apart from lysosomal non-specific esterases
, non-specific esterases
have been found on the outer cell membrane of AM.
Novel specificities, tolerance to extremes of pH, temperature, and/or salt tolerance are features often desired in esterases
. Biocatalysis in organic solvents are advantageous due to several reasons including the ability to perform reactions restricted kinetically or thermodynamically in water, increased solubility of certain substrates in organic solvents, suppression of undesirable side reactions, possibility to control or modify the enzyme selectivity, and increased thermal stability in organic solvents [5-7].