In preclinical studies, investigators found evidence to support bazedoxifene as the SERM of choice and demonstrated that, by combining it with conjugated estrogens
, they could provide an optimal balance of estrogen-receptor agonist/antagonist activity, compared with other potential TSEC pairings.
My own research aims to characterize the amounts, variety, and ultimate fate of estrogens
discharged with sewage into Massachusetts Bay.
receptor [beta] has at least 5 isoforms, (4) which are encoded by the same gene: ER-B1 (the wild-type ER-B), ER-B2, ER-B3, ER-B4, and ER-B5.
The term "estrogen
" includes a group of chemically similar hormones: estrone, estradiol (the most abundant in women of reproductive age) and estriol.
What can you do to reduce your exposure to these synthetic estrogens
? First, reduce your use of plastics.
The study included a subgroup of women from the estrogen
alone and combined estrogen
plus progestin arms of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI).
Here's the reality behind the WHI: Basically, in 2002 the WHI found that women taking the hormone therapy Prempro, composed of progestin (a synthetic progestogen known as medroxyprogesterone acetate or MPA) and conjugated equine estrogen
, had a 26 percent increased risk of invasive breast cancer, a 29 percent increased risk of heart attack, a 41 percent higher rate of stroke and more than a 100 percent increase in blood clots in the lung.
Until recently, people thought the estrogens
in birth control pills were rendered inactive by the body because the kidneys tack on.
Hormone replacement therapies using estrogen
alone or in combination with sequential progestin supplementation may put women at significantly increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, reported Dr.
Estriol balances the negative effects of other estrogens
Manifestations of decreased estrogen
include obvious symptoms such as hot flashes, sleep disturbance, decreased sex drive, and emotional irritability.
"Researchers thought that Asian women may experience milder symptoms during menopause than Western women because the soy foods in their diets provide plant estrogens
to supplement their dwindling supply of natural estrogen
," says Margo Woods of Tufts University in Boston.