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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a Russian term whose meanings include the following: (1) a station (etap prison) where convicts stopped for the day or spent the night on their way to Siberia or to exile in their native villages, (2) the distance between two etapy (usually 15 to 25 versts), (3) a group of convicts (60 to 100 persons in Siberia; 20 to 60 persons in European Russia) with a convoy.

First attested in Russia in the early 19th century, etap became an official term when M. M. Speranskii used it in his Statute on the Etaps in the Siberian Provinces, which was adopted on July 22, 1822. The etap system existed in Russia until the bourgeois democratic revolution of February 1917.


Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii, vol. 38. Moscow, 1830. Number 29129.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"It is now a self-evident fact that Larnaca has entered for good the tourism game by attracting the interest of both investors and travel agents," Etap said.
ETAP is a provider of software solutions for the design, analysis, optimization, and real-time operation of electrical power systems.
ETAP is the global market and technology leader in modeling, design, analysis, optimization, monitoring, control, and automation software for electrical power systems.
The Borj el-Khadra prospect is operated by Agip (25%), with ?MV of Austria (20%), Paladin (since 2005 part of Talisman of Canada, 5%) and ETAP (50%).
Gas Production: Some of the new output came from the Chirgui gas field, which ETAP had developed along with the Petrofac of the UK at a cost of $100m.
In other words, education would affect subjective norm, PU, PEU, and intention to use SAK ETAP. Therefore, the study proposes hypotheses 14 to 17:
ETAP is a wholly-state-owned company with the specific status of a business-oriented public entity, commonly known as an EPNA.
Bibby Offshore is scheduled to take part in the $1 billion Eastern Trough Area Project (ETAP) Life Extension Project announced by BP last year.
The investment in the ETAP oil and gas fields will secure the project's future beyond 2030.
The firm, which also has offices in Aberdeen, has invested in ETAP software which supports the design, simulation, operation and automation of industrial power systems.
Mohamed Akrout, CEO of state-owned Tunisian National Oil Company Etap, also discussed investment opportunities in the North African country, in an exclusive interview with The Energy Exchange, the organisers of the North Africa Oil and Gas Summit which concluded recently.
Summary: The President and CEO of the National Oil Company of Tunisia (ETAP), Mohamed Akrout, says Tunisia has maintained an image of a safe investment region in the post-Arab spring era by maintaining a good relationship with all investors in the oil & gas and the energy sector.