Republicanism, nationalism, populism, etatism
, laicism and revolutionarism constitute the major principles of Kemalism.
In the absence of well-developed domestic markets and because of the lingering legacy of the etatism
of the 1950s and the 1960s, much of the international trade in MENA has been conducted by and through the state.
It is interesting to note that etatism
may lead to more or less political rights and political participation for women.
Although overwhelmingly Muslim, Turkey enjoys a strict separation between state and religion under the Kemalist concept of secularism and etatism
On the English scene, one might highlight differences between Spencer's individualism, Hobhouse's interventionist "liberal socialism" and the etatism
of the Fabian Society or, alternatively, some of the frictions which developed in the middle 1930s between the individualism of Ginsberg and the sociologism of Mannheim.
However, Lal concluded that there are important instances to show that "it is not Islamic beliefs in themselves that have hindered development but dysfunctional etatism
and dirigisme, which, when reversed as in the Muslim parts of Southeast Asia, have delivered Promethean intensive growth"  (Lal, 1998, p.
The development of a mixed provision system in the field of social services can be explained partly by a voluntarist policy towards decentralization which overcomes a thousand-year-old tradition of etatism
, and partly by the initiatives of the nonprofit sector facing new social issues.
This paper offers an alternative understanding of the origins of the Turkish economic policy of etatism
based on the understudied effects of the 1933-1934 American-led Hines-Kemmerer mission to Turkey.
1917-73, thus underlining its crucial but probably not exclusive parallels with Leninism), this dominant idea was either some kind of socialist--usually perverted or pseudo-socialist--imaginative topology, or technocratic etatism
with few if any socialist traits.
Begrudgingly Horvat admitted that central planning, a corollary of etatism
, must founder because central planners simply could not know enough to direct the economic life of a country.
Stojanovic, Svetozar 1987 Od marksizma do etatizma sa ljudskirn licem (From Marxism to Etatism
with a Human Face).
Both elements impinge on traditional etatism
by regionalization as a process that devolves governance to new institutions of federalism and decentralizes it from government to nongovernmental organizations.