ethnography

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ethnography:

see anthropologyanthropology,
classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture.
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; ethnologyethnology
, scientific study of the origin and functioning of human cultures. It is usually considered one of the major branches of cultural anthropology, the other two being anthropological archaeology and anthropological linguistics. In the 19th cent.
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ethnography

the direct observation of an organization or small society, and the written description produced. Often the method of observation involves PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION. The ethnographic method (sometimes also referred to as FIELDWORK) is a basic method in SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, It is also a method used in some areas of sociology, e.g. COMMUNITY STUDIES. Usually a researcher gathers data by living and working in the society or social setting being researched, seeking to immerse himself or herself as fully as possible in the activities under observation, but at the same time keeping careful records of these activities.

In anthropology, an emphasis on the importance of the ethnographic method was initially associated with the functionalist school, which encouraged an analysis of the internal structure and function of single societies rather than historical or comparative studies (see FUNCTIONALISM). However, there is no inherent reason why ethnographic and comparative approaches should not be seen as complementary or why ethnography should simply be associated with one theoretical school.

ethnography

[eth′nä·grə·fē]
(anthropology)
The branch of ethnology that deals with the description of races or ethnic groups, without attempting to analyze or compare them.
References in periodicals archive ?
Moving towards ethnographies of interpretation can offer a different view of the field, indeed, one which seems eminently suited to the task in both theory and method.
If readers look to ethnographic fiction as "better representations of culture than standard academic ethnographies," that distance becomes hard to navigate without a willingness to understand self-conscious fiction (Hill 161).
The approach lays stress on the narrative presence of "others" in ethnographies (Marcus and Cushman 1982:43).
The closest thing to an indigenous voice cited for things Afghan actually comes in connection with Ahmed's and Barth's ethnographies of "Pathans," a social category often and problematically assimilated with "Pashtuns," "Pukhtuns," and "Afghans.
However, Hsia's paper ("Christian Ethnographies of Jews in Early Modern Germany") addresses cultural and ideological issues without touching on the underlying reality of expulsions.
Bentley argues that the novels of Hawthorne, James, and Wharton employed strategies akin to the contemporaneous ethnographies of Tylor, Boas, and Malinowski, for example, to chart and defuse the dangerous thrills of social difference.
Thornhill tracked information on mating and marriage rules in the ethnographies of 129 societies -- from the 16th-century Incas to the 20th-century Vietnamese -- stored at the Human Relations Area Files in New Haven, Conn.
Ethnographies of law are historically associated with anthropology and the study of far-away places and people.
She examines novels, ethnographies, and testimonial writing from the 1920s to 2000, as well as portrayals of gender and sexuality.
The ethnographies are intended, not as a comprehensive study of the city, but more to provide an understanding of what some consider the least known of Europe's capitals and to correct Western stereotypes about it.
Additional services include workforce audits and employee retention/recruitment programs, detailed ethnographies delineating the Boomer culture, new product ideation and evaluation services, as well as custom research exploring defined areas of interest to clients.