ethylene glycol

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ethylene glycol:

see glycolglycol
, dihydric alcohol in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2.
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Ethylene Glycol

 

(also 1,2-ethanediol), HOCH2CH2OH, the simplest of the glycols.

Ethylene glycol takes the form of a colorless, viscous liquid with a sweet taste. It has a melting point of – 12.3°C, a boiling point of 196°C, and a density of 1.113 g/cm3 at 20°C. Miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol, and acetone, it is poorly soluble in ether and insoluble in chloroform, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Ethylene glycol is hygroscopic.

An important property of ethylene glycol is its capacity to produce a marked lowering of the freezing point of water. A 40-percent solution of ethylene glycol in water has a freezing point of – 25°C, and a 60-percent solution has a freezing point of – 40°C. For this reason, ethylene glycol is commonly used in the manufacture of antifreezes.

Similar to other dihydric alcohols, ethylene glycol forms monoglycolates and diglycolates (such as HOCH2CH2ONa and NaOCH2CH2ONa), ethers, and esters. Among the other derivatives of ethylene glycol are cellusolves (the monoethers HOCH2CH2OR, where R is a hydrocarbon) and polyesters, including polyethylene terephthalate, that have the general formula (—OCH2CH2OCO—R—CO—)n; cellosolves are used as solvents, and ethylene glycol polyesters are used in the preparation of Dacron and similar synthetic fibers (seeLAVSAN and POLYESTER FIBER). Nitroglycol, a diester of ethylene glycol and nitric acid, is an explosive.

The principal industrial method for the production of ethylene glycol is the hydration of ethylene oxide at a pressure of 10 atmospheres and a temperature of 190°-200°C (or at 1 atmosphere and 50°-100°C) in the presence of 0.1–0.5 percent sulfuric or ortho-phosphoric acid; diethylene glycol and a small quantity of higher polymeric homologues of ethylene glycol are formed as by-products in this process. Ethylene glycol is used on a limited scale as a solvent for printer’s inks and certain other dyes, and it is used in the production of various inks, including inks for ball-point pens. It is also used in organic synthesis. Ethylene glycol is toxic.

M. K. GRACHEV

ethylene glycol

[′eth·ə·lēn ′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)

ethylene glycol

A type of alcohol, completely miscible in water, used in latex and water-based paints to provide stability when frozen; used in heating and cooling systems as a fluid for transferring heat.
References in periodicals archive ?
After trying out several different polymer recipes and optimizing the conditions, it was found that the polymer made with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and vinylpyridine as functional monomer performed best when tested by immunoassay.
Briefly, an amount of 14 mg of Fe[Cl.sub.3] x 6[H.sub.2]O and 1mg of the selected MWCNTs was suspended in 0.75 mL of ethyleneglycol in a glass vial.
Preparation and characterization of poly (D,L-lactide) (PLA) and poly (D,L-lactiode)-poly (ethyleneglycol) (PLA-PEG) nanocapsules containing antitumoral agent methotrexate.
The surface energy of the PUU film was evaluated by the static contact angle measurement on the surface of the sample with two liquids (water and ethyleneglycol), (10) and was calculated as follows:
The following drugs were used: L(-) phenylephrine hydrochloride (Pfizer), noradrenaline hydrochloride (Pfizer); sodium pentobarbital (Halocarbon); heparin sodium salt (Roche); caffeine, ([+ or -]) sodium nitroprusside, acetylcoline hydrochloride, [N.sup.[omega][epsilon]]-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hydrochloride; ethyleneglycol bis ([beta]-aminoethylether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) (all from Sigma); ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid dihydrate dissodium salt (EDTA) (Merck).
On the Cobas Mira, we used a reaction mode with sequential additions of sample (30 [micro]L) and reagent [120 [micro]L of accelerating buffer containing 200 mmol/L Tris-HCI (pH 8.0), 70 g/L poly(ethyleneglycol) 6000, 15 g/L poly(ethyleneglycol) 35 000, 0.9 g/L sodium azide, and 10mL/L Triton X-100], followed by mixing and the addition of 50 [micro]L of gold-antibody conjugate.
Kizhakkedathu, RAFT Synthesis of Acrylic Copolymers Containing Poly(ethyleneglycol) and Dioxolane Functional Groups: Toward Well- Defined Aldehyde Containing Copolymers for Bioconjugation, Macromolecules, 41, 5272 (2008).
Therefore, poly (ethyleneglycol) was used as plasticizer as well as to enhance the strength of the film.
Various studies have reported the use of water-soluble dimethacrylatedpoly(ethyleneglycol)(PEG-DMA) to create structured, cell-containing hydrogels by stereolithography [79].
The required amount of ethyleneglycol and citric acid was added to the solution and heated at 40[degrees]C under vigorous magnetic stirring.
The partially purified protease retained its 85 to 100% activity at three concentrations of organic solvents, that is, (i) 30% solvents of acetone, benzene, dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol, and propanol, (ii) 50% solvents of acetone, acetophenone, benzene, chlorobenzene, and dimethylformamide, and (iii) 70% solvents of acetone and benzene, but more than 60% inactivation was observed in presence of remaining solvents (Table 2).

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