forests of various species of eucalyptus. Eucalyptus forests are common in Australia and, to a lesser extent, in Tasmania and Indonesia. Because of the vertical arrangement of eucalyptus leaves, a significant amount of light penetrates the forest canopy, and a well-expressed grass stratum and, often, a brush stratum form.
Eucalyptus forests are most widespread in regions having a subtropical climate with atmospheric precipitation occurring in the winter. The height and density of the stand diminish as the climate becomes more arid. In the more humid regions of southwestern Australia, where atmospheric precipitation is more than 1,250 mm a year, there are forests of Eucalyptus diversicolor. The open stands have an average canopy height of 60–75 m. In the drier eastern regions, where precipitation totals 625–1,250 mm a year, low eucalyptus forests of Eucalyptus marginata, averaging 15–20 m in height, occur. Fully developed brush and grass strata predominate, and insectivorous plants are characteristic. In the center of the continent, where atmospheric precipitation is 500–625 mm, there are open woodlands of Eucalyptus nedunca spp. wando. In arid regions low eucalyptus savannas, called mollees, occur.