Michel Éugène Chevreul

(redirected from Eugene Chevreul)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chevreul, Michel Éugène


Born Aug. 31, 1786, in Angers; died Apr. 9, 1889, in Paris. French organic chemist. Member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1826). Professor at the Lycée Charlemagne (from 1813) and the natural history museum in Paris (from 1830).

Chevreul’s main works deal with the chemistry of fats (1810–23). Chevreul established the chemical composition of fats and, by saponification, isolated stearic, oleic, palmitic, and other acids. He gave the name “glycerin” to the “sweet principle of oils and fats” discovered by K. Scheele. Chevreul derived a number of dyes from plants, including hematoxylin (1811), quercitrin (1831), morin (1831), and luteolin (1833); he also derived creatine from meat extract (1835). Chevreul proposed an efficient system of color classification. His research has found applications in the manufacture of soap, stearin, and certain dyes.

Chevreul was a foreign corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1853).


Resume d’une histoire de ia matière depuis les philosophes grecs jusqu’à Lavoisier inclusivement. Paris, 1878.
Recherches chimiques sur les corps gras d’origine animale. Paris, 1889.


Manolov, K. Velikie khimiki, vol. 1. [Moscow] 1976. Pages 294–313. (Translated from Bulgarian.)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The neo-impressionists instituted a new form of impressionism based on two theories of color relationships presented by the French chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul: optical mixing, in which two juxtaposed colors can be seen to blend together to suggest a third, and simultaneous contrast, in which the perception of a particular hue is influenced by the ones that are placed next to it.
In the late 1700s, French researcher Francois Poulletier de la Salle first discovered it in solid form from gallstones; and around 1815, another French chemist, Michel Eugene Chevreul, was the first to isolate and purify this sterol (as well as several other lipids).
Michel Eugene Chevreul isolated and purified the sterol from gallstones and named it "cholesterol" (Greek, chol for bile plus stereos for solid).
Noted ninteenth-century color theorist, Michel Eugene Chevreul observed that just as dark and light oppositions enhance each other, color is likewise heightened when placed beside its "complement," the color located on the opposite side of the color wheel.
It is with this series that Delaunay's use of vibrant color comes to the fore, as does the notion of "simultaneity." In his essay "Light," Delaunay wrote that simultaneity was "the living movement of the world" and "the color rhythms which gave birth to Man's sight." Predicated in the color theories of Michel Eugene Chevreul and the spatial interrogations of Cubism, simultaneity connoted (broadly speaking) the dissolution of particular experience into a harmonic, universal rapport.
Founded, about 1886, upon the recently formulated optical and color theories of such scientists as Edouard Root and Michel Eugene Chevreul, neoimpressionism sought to create a scientific method for the empirical division of tone used by the impressionists (see impressionism ).
The following October, the artist resumed the project, incorporating concepts of chromo-luminarism, a concept derived from his readings of color theorists Michel Eugene Chevreul and Ogden N.