Euglenophyta


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Euglenophyta

(yo͞o'glənŏf`ətə), small phylum (division) of the kingdom ProtistaProtista
or Protoctista
, in the five-kingdom system of classification, a kingdom comprising a variety of unicellular and some simple multinuclear and multicellular eukaryotic organisms.
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, consisting of mostly unicellular aquatic algaealgae
[plural of Lat. alga=seaweed], a large and diverse group of primarily aquatic plantlike organisms. These organisms were previously classified as a primitive subkingdom of the plant kingdom, the thallophytes (plants that lack true roots, stems, leaves, and flowers).
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. Most live in freshwater; many have flagella and are motile. The outer part of the cell consists of a firm but flexible layer called a pellicle, or periplast, which cannot properly be considered a cell wall. Some euglenoids contain chloroplastschloroplast
, a complex, discrete green structure, or organelle, contained in the cytoplasm of plant cells. Chloroplasts are reponsible for the green color of almost all plants and are lacking only in plants that do not make their own food, such as fungi and nongreen parasitic
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 that contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b, as in the phylum ChlorophytaChlorophyta
, phylum (division) of the kingdom Protista consisting of the photosynthetic organisms commonly known as green algae. The organisms are largely aquatic or marine.
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; others are heterotrophic and can ingest or absorb their food. Food is stored as a polysaccharide, paramylon. Reproduction occurs by longitudinal cell division. The most characteristic genus is Euglena, common in ponds and pools, especially when the water has been polluted by runoff from fields or lawns on which fertilizers have been used. There are approximately 1,000 species of euglenoids.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Euglenophyta

 

a division of microscopic algae usually consisting of a single free-swimming cell. Colonial forms are rare. The nucleus is clearly pronounced, and the green, rarely colorless, chloroplast may lack pyrenoids. The plastmatic cover, or periplast, of some species bears hard, iron-incrusted capsules. At the anterior end of the cell there is a gullet, through which one, two, or sometimes more flagella extend. The contracting vacuoles and stigma are located on the sides of the gullet. In creeping forms the flagellum is rudimentary. Reproduction is by means of longitudinal splitting. Under unfavorable conditions, some species discard their flagella and form protective spores (cysts). Nutrition is primarily phototrophic in green individuals and saprophytic and holozoic (according to the animal type) in colorless individuals. Parasitic species are few in number. The carbohydrate paramylum and oil serve as a food reserve.

There are about 60 genera, embracing more than 900 species, usually found in shallow reservoirs rich in organic matter. The USSR has 33 genera, with 429 species. The algae give water a green, red, or brown coloration when they grow abundantly. Many zoologists classify the Euglenophyta among the Protozoa.

REFERENCE

Popova, T. G., and T. A. Safonova. Evglenovye vodorosli, Leningrad, 1976.

L. A. RUNDINA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Euglenophyta

[‚yü·glə′näf·əd·ə]
(botany)
A division of the plant kingdom including one-celled, chiefly aquatic flagellate organisms having a spindle-shaped or flattened body, naked or with a pellicle.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
4 3 3 West) Miller ex West A10 Aphanizomenon flos-aquae 4 2 2 3 3 (Linnaeus) Ralfs A16 Arthrospira spirulinoides Ghose 4 7 3 Division: Euglenophyta Familia Euglenaceae Stein em.
At the time (rainy season, 2000) plants were collected, dominant phytoplankton divisions in sampled water were Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria, and Euglenophyta. Total density of Bacillariophyta was 36 537 ind/l and 2 447 ind/l in lake and marsh, respectively.
Groups Observed frequencies for the operation periods (h) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Fitoplancton Bacillariophyta ++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ +++ ++++ +++ +++ Chlorophyta ++++ - ++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ Euglenophyta +++ +++ +++ ++ +++ ++++ - ++++ +++ Cyanophyta - - +++ - ++ ++ - - - Cryptophyta - ++ - +++ - - - - - Dinophyta - - +++ - - - - - - Zooplancton Rotifera - - - - - - - - - Cladocera - - - - - - - - - Copepoda - - - - - - - - - Bacteria ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ Fungi +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ Protozoa +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ Range: (++++) predominant, (+++) frequent, (++) less frequent and (-) not observed.
En la laguna Huaroncocha (>3.17 bits.[ind..sup.-1]) es clara la presencia de aguas limpias, evidenciando una alta diversidad de especies por la presencia de varios filo como Bacillariophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria, Euglenophyta y Ochrophyta.
Cyan: Cyanophyta, Chlo: Chlorophyta, Baci: Bacillariophyta, Eugl: Euglenophyta, Cryp: Cryptophyta, Pyrr: Pyrrophyta, Chry: Chrysophyta, Xant: Xanthophyta.
The phytoplankton community was represented by eight taxa in the Rio Formoso pond and 18 taxa in the Petrolandia pond, which were classified within the Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Euglenophyta divisions.
Los phyla Euglenophyta y Cryptophyta fueron los mejor representados en abundancia (Fig.
De la division Bacillariophyta pertenece el 72% de los generos registrados, seguido por Cyanobacteria (27%), y las divisiones Chlorophyta y Euglenophyta (1% y 0,2% respectivamente).