eukaryote

(redirected from Eukariont)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

eukaryote

eukaryote (yo͞okârˈē-ōtˌ), a cell or organism composed of cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cell, in biology) and genetic material organized in chromosomes in which the DNA is combined with histone proteins. Eukaryotes are contrasted with the prokaryotes (see Monera). Eukaryotes formed through the merger of prokaryotes, which predate them in the fossil record by some 2 billion years. In the five-kingdom system of classification, the eukaryotes have comprised the taxonomic kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae (see plant), and Animalia (see animal). In a recently proposed system they are called the eukarya and classified as an overarching group (domain) above the kingdom level.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Eukaryote

 

a single- and multiple-celled plant and animal organism in which the body of the cell, in contrast to the cells of a prokaryote, is differentiated into the cytoplasm and the nucleus enclosed by a membrane. The most recent system of the organic kingdom gives the eukaryotes the rank of a superkingdom (including the animal, mushroom, and plant kingdoms) and juxtaposes them to the superkingdom of the prokaryotes.

The genetic material of the nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into chromosomes that are capable of duplication and distribution through mitosis between daughter cells. The molecular basis of the chromosomes is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is closely associated with histones and other proteins. In most eukaryotes there is a typical sexual process, with the fusion of cell nuclei during fertilization and reduction division during meiosis. The cytoplasm of the cells of eukaryotes, in contrast to that of prokaryote cells, has a complex system of membranes that form an endoplasmotic network, the Golgi apparatus, the mitochondria, and other organoids.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

eukaryote

[yü′kar·ē‚ōt]
(biology)
A cell with a definitive nucleus. Also spelled eucaryote.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.