eukaryote

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Related to Eukaryotic cells: Prokaryotes, Plasmids

eukaryote

(yo͞okâr`ē-ōt'), a cell or organism composed of cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cellcell,
in biology, the unit of structure and function of which all plants and animals are composed. The cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of integrating the essential life processes. There are many unicellular organisms, e.g.
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, in biology) and genetic material organized in chromosomes in which the DNA is combined with histonehistone
, any of a class of protein molecules found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells. They complex with the DNA (see nucleic acid) and pack the DNA into tight masses of chromatin, which have the structure of coiled coils, much like a tangled telephone cord.
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 proteins. Eukaryotes are contrasted with the prokaryotes (see MoneraMonera,
taxonomic kingdom that comprises the prokaryotes (bacteria and cyanobacteria). Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and usually lack membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cell, in biology).
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). Eukaryotes formed through the merger of prokaryotes, which predate them in the fossil record by some 2 billion years. In the five-kingdom system of classificationclassification,
in biology, the systematic categorization of organisms into a coherent scheme. The original purpose of biological classification, or systematics, was to organize the vast number of known plants and animals into categories that could be named, remembered, and
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, the eukaryotes have comprised the taxonomic kingdoms ProtistaProtista
or Protoctista
, in the five-kingdom system of classification, a kingdom comprising a variety of unicellular and some simple multinuclear and multicellular eukaryotic organisms.
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, FungiFungi
, kingdom of heterotrophic single-celled, multinucleated, or multicellular organisms, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. The organisms live as parasites, symbionts, or saprobes (see saprophyte).
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, Plantae (see plantplant,
any organism of the plant kingdom, as opposed to one of the animal kingdom or of the kingdoms Fungi, Protista, or Monera in the five-kingdom system of classification.
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), and Animalia (see animalanimal,
any member of the animal kingdom (kingdom Animalia), as distinguished from organisms of the plant kingdom (kingdom Plantae) and the kingdoms Fungi, Protista, and Monera in the five-kingdom system of classification.
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). In a recently proposed system they are called the eukarya and classified as an overarching group (domain) above the kingdom level.

Eukaryote

 

a single- and multiple-celled plant and animal organism in which the body of the cell, in contrast to the cells of a prokaryote, is differentiated into the cytoplasm and the nucleus enclosed by a membrane. The most recent system of the organic kingdom gives the eukaryotes the rank of a superkingdom (including the animal, mushroom, and plant kingdoms) and juxtaposes them to the superkingdom of the prokaryotes.

The genetic material of the nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into chromosomes that are capable of duplication and distribution through mitosis between daughter cells. The molecular basis of the chromosomes is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is closely associated with histones and other proteins. In most eukaryotes there is a typical sexual process, with the fusion of cell nuclei during fertilization and reduction division during meiosis. The cytoplasm of the cells of eukaryotes, in contrast to that of prokaryote cells, has a complex system of membranes that form an endoplasmotic network, the Golgi apparatus, the mitochondria, and other organoids.

eukaryote

[yü′kar·ē‚ōt]
(biology)
A cell with a definitive nucleus. Also spelled eucaryote.
References in periodicals archive ?
The device must be defined with high precision automated select prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in different media.
RheoSwitch inducible gene expression technology precisely regulates the timing and level of transgene expression in eukaryotic cells through the highly specific interaction of RheoChem(TM) ligand inducers with RheoCept(TM) protein receptors.
Vesicle-membrane fusion is fundamental to the function of eukaryotic cells and plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes, including protein secretion and synaptic transmission.
Kinase proteins are key to signalling in eukaryotic cells, so it is not surprising that their dysfunction has been implicated in human diseases such as cancer and inflammatory disorders.
To construct the switch, the authors made use of zinc finger DNA binding proteins, a naturally occurring switch that regulates gene expression in eukaryotic cells.
The active, mature miRNAs are 17-24 base, single-stranded RNA molecules expressed in eukaryotic cells and are known to affect the translation or stability of target messenger RNAs.
Hsp90 is an important chaperone and comprises of 1-2% of all protein is eukaryotic cells.
Electroporation is widely used in vitro to effectively deliver DNA into eukaryotic cells and bacteria.
pombe kinetochores, like those of most eukaryotic cells, are associated with multiple microtubules.
Electroporation is widely used in vitro to effectively introduce DNA into eukaryotic cells and bacteria.
DUBLIN, Ireland -- Rna Interference (RNAi) is a Phenomenon That Has Rapidly Evolved into a Powerful Technique to Silence Gene Expression in Eukaryotic Cells.
The objective of the research is to investigate the role of the recently discovered Erk- and p38 kinase-activated kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 in the regulation of the physiology of eukaryotic cells.