The Representation of Loyalty in Literature: Homer's Eumaios and Dickens's Sam Weller
Eumaios does not recognize him, but treats him with warm hospitality.
Sam's praise of his master in the context of the Victorian servant milieu is worlds apart from the sentiments expressed by Eumaios in the Odyssey, but the absoluteness of loyalty is what the two figures have in common.
Their generosity affiliates them with Nestor, Menelaus, Aeolus, Alcinoos, and Eumaios
(among others) from the Odyssey.
Watchdogs attending the mountainside swineherd Eumaios
attack Odysseus as if he were the alien beggar he seems to be--these same dogs will later fawn on prince Telemakhos when he approaches.
You need to have the old swineherd Eumaios
there to greet Odysseus when he returns to Ithaka.
89-92); when the hospitality of the feast is offered to the wandering Odysseus by Alkinoos, Circe, or Eumaios (Il.
When the swineherd Eumaios makes up his mind to slaughter the best of the pigs for Odysseus, who is disguised as an unknown stranger (Od.
Indeed, he asserts she has already ascertained his identity even earlier, in book 17, on the basis of her discussion with Telemakhos and Eumaios (18: "This is the moment Penelope suspects her husband is back"), and that in book 18, when she appears before the suitors, she is fully aware of Odysseus' presence, seeing through his beggar guise (on 18.
This applies to seemingly all human characters in the poem, including very astute individuals such as Eumaios, who remains in extremely close contact with the disguised Odysseus for days, speaks at length, shares meals with him, but is unable to recognize him until Odysseus discloses his identity to him, proving it with a token (21.
205-25, Odysseus had readily convinced Eumaios and Philoitios of his real identity, underneath the rags he is wearing, and at 22.
The others who were involved in the slaughter of the Suitors (Telemachos, Eumaios, and Philoitios) have already (22.