The facts presented by Eunomius
explained the manner in which the Roman State Church was founded in the 4th century, and how its God Jesus Christ was invented
Gary Anderson, for example, uses the mosaic at Sepphoris to broaden interpretations of Genesis 22; Eric Daryl Meyer recalls Gregory of Nyssa and Eunomius
of Cyzicus's interpretations of the naming of God's creatures in Genesis 2; Matthew Drever, Karla Pollman, and Ellen Charry take seriously Augustine's insights in Genesis 2-3; 3:18; 12:1-3; and 25:22-23.
Apart from some mild ad hominem attacks (which remind one of the patristic gems exemplified by Gregory of Nyssa's spat with Eunomius
in the late fourth century), Hart wants to assess the logical and hermeneutical consistency of different writers, ranging from popular essayists such as Christopher Hitchens to the more systematic minds of Richard Dawkins and Daniel Dennett.
and Gregory of Nyssa have the same God?
His heroes instead were Aetius and Eunomius
, who had promoted the doctrine that the Father and the Son in the Trinity were "dissimilar.
Scholars have long recognized that the theological arguments of Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa against their opponent Eunomius
helped to shape the development of Christian orthodoxy, and thus Christian self-definition, in the late fourth-century Roman Empire.
In Christian authors as well as in Eunomius
the term has different shades of meaning.
One may, for instance, compare the teaching of St Athanasius and Arianism (since the former was engaged in polemics with the latter); the theological systems of Eunomius
and Gregory of Nyssa (since Gregory refuted Eunomius
); the viewpoints of Gregory the Theologian and Julian the Apostate (since they were contemporaries, knew each other, and Gregory wrote denunciatory letters against Julian); Manichaeism and the theology of Blessed Augustine (since Augustine was a Manichaean before his conversion to Christianity); the theology of St John of Damascus and Islam (since St John was engaged in polemics with Islam), and so on.
Pico della Mirandola, Apologia, in Opera, Basal, 1557, 204: "Clemens apostolorum discipulus qui Romanae ecclesiae post Apostolos episcopus et martyr fuit, libros edidit qui appellantur Recognitio, in quibus cum ex persona Petri doctrina quasi vere apostolica exponatur, in aliquibus ita Eunomii dogma inseritur vt nullus alius quam ipse Eunomius
disputare credatur, Filium Dei creatum de nihilo dicens.
This unwarranted modern judgment may have resulted from the way the controversy between Eunomius
and his opponents unfolded: Eunomius
's Apology was first opposed by Basil, to be followed with lengthier criticisms by Gregory.
would have agreed with Nagarjuna, had he been pressed farther than he was regarding the nature of God.
survives this entire sequence (through the council of Constantiople in 360) with his reputation intact, which suggests the actual target of the anathema was just Aetius: see Sozomen, HE IV.