European Atomic Energy Community

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European Atomic Energy Community

(Euratom or EAEC), economic organization that came into being as the 3d treaty organization of what has become the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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; established by the Treaty of Rome (1958). The members pledged themselves to the common development of Europe's nuclear energy resources by coordinating their nuclear research and development programs and by permitting the free movement of nuclear raw materials, equipment, investment capital, and specialists within the community. Euratom is vested with wide powers, including the right to conclude contracts, obtain raw materials, and establish standards to protect workers and the general population against the dangers of radiation. It is administered by the European CommissionEuropean Commission
(EC), institution of the European Union (EU) invested with executive powers; it also is the main EU institution that initiates legislation. Located in Brussels, Belgium, it was founded in 1967 when the three treaty organizations comprising what was then the
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, which is advised by the Scientific and Technical Committee and the Economic and Social Committee.

European Atomic Energy Community

 

(Euratom), an international state-monopoly organization created by the six member countries of the European Economic Community: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The agreement to establish Euratom was signed in 1957 and went into force on Jan. 1, 1958.

The official goal of Euratom is cooperation in creating and developing nuclear industry, joint research operations, exchange of technical information, creation of a common market for equipment and raw materials, supervision over the use of fissionable materials, and so on. The commission of Euratom, the main executive body, has been given the necessary authority to direct the development of atomic power. During the first five-year program for the development of atomic power industry in the member countries (1958-62), Euratom research centers were set up in Ispra, Italy, and Mol, Belgium, and the European Transuranium Elements Institute was established in Karlsruhe, West Germany. The program earmarked $215 million for scientific re-search.

Rapid development of atomic energy enabled the member states of Euratom to revise the second five-year program (1963-67) by increasing total appropriations to $455 million. By the end of 1967 approximately 200 atomic units were operating in Euratom countries, including 20 uranium mines, five plants for the production of atomic fuel, 14 enterprises for the manufacture of heat-generating elements, and approximately 100 atomic reactors. The power capacity of the atomic power stations operating by 1969 totaled 6 million kilowatts. According to the long-term program, the total capacity of atomic power stations in member countries of Euratom should grow to 17 million kilowatts by 1975.

Implementation of Euratom projects is causing sharp contradictions between the participants, as well as with countries that are not members of the community. Presenting particularly acute problems are the selection of reactor types and the methods of surmounting the “technology gap” between Euratom and the United States. Conflicts have emerged between France and West Germany on such issues as the functions of Euratom and the composition of its directing bodies, especially during the period of the merger of Euratom with the European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community.

Plans to use Euratom’s nuclear potential for military pur-poses are arousing serious anxiety in the progressive world. To counteract these plans, progressive elements of the member countries of the community are advocating programs for the development of fuel and power industrial sectors. Such programs would be in the interest of the broad masses of the people.

On January 1, 1973, Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark joined Euratom.

REFERENCES

European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom): 10th General Re-port on the Activities of the Community. [Brussels] 1967.
Documentation Attached to the 10th General Report on the Activities of the Community [section 1], 1967 (April).
“Euratom—Community in a Crisis.”Intereconomics, 1969, no. 4, pp. 106-08.

V. V. MOTYLEV

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