European Atomic Energy Community

(redirected from Euratom Treaty)
Also found in: Financial.

European Atomic Energy Community

(Euratom or EAEC), economic organization that came into being as the 3d treaty organization of what has become the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
..... Click the link for more information.
; established by the Treaty of Rome (1958). The members pledged themselves to the common development of Europe's nuclear energy resources by coordinating their nuclear research and development programs and by permitting the free movement of nuclear raw materials, equipment, investment capital, and specialists within the community. Euratom is vested with wide powers, including the right to conclude contracts, obtain raw materials, and establish standards to protect workers and the general population against the dangers of radiation. It is administered by the European CommissionEuropean Commission
(EC), institution of the European Union (EU) invested with executive powers; it also is the main EU institution that initiates legislation. Located in Brussels, Belgium, it was founded in 1967 when the three treaty organizations comprising what was then the
..... Click the link for more information.
, which is advised by the Scientific and Technical Committee and the Economic and Social Committee.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

European Atomic Energy Community


(Euratom), an international state-monopoly organization created by the six member countries of the European Economic Community: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The agreement to establish Euratom was signed in 1957 and went into force on Jan. 1, 1958.

The official goal of Euratom is cooperation in creating and developing nuclear industry, joint research operations, exchange of technical information, creation of a common market for equipment and raw materials, supervision over the use of fissionable materials, and so on. The commission of Euratom, the main executive body, has been given the necessary authority to direct the development of atomic power. During the first five-year program for the development of atomic power industry in the member countries (1958-62), Euratom research centers were set up in Ispra, Italy, and Mol, Belgium, and the European Transuranium Elements Institute was established in Karlsruhe, West Germany. The program earmarked $215 million for scientific re-search.

Rapid development of atomic energy enabled the member states of Euratom to revise the second five-year program (1963-67) by increasing total appropriations to $455 million. By the end of 1967 approximately 200 atomic units were operating in Euratom countries, including 20 uranium mines, five plants for the production of atomic fuel, 14 enterprises for the manufacture of heat-generating elements, and approximately 100 atomic reactors. The power capacity of the atomic power stations operating by 1969 totaled 6 million kilowatts. According to the long-term program, the total capacity of atomic power stations in member countries of Euratom should grow to 17 million kilowatts by 1975.

Implementation of Euratom projects is causing sharp contradictions between the participants, as well as with countries that are not members of the community. Presenting particularly acute problems are the selection of reactor types and the methods of surmounting the “technology gap” between Euratom and the United States. Conflicts have emerged between France and West Germany on such issues as the functions of Euratom and the composition of its directing bodies, especially during the period of the merger of Euratom with the European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community.

Plans to use Euratom’s nuclear potential for military pur-poses are arousing serious anxiety in the progressive world. To counteract these plans, progressive elements of the member countries of the community are advocating programs for the development of fuel and power industrial sectors. Such programs would be in the interest of the broad masses of the people.

On January 1, 1973, Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark joined Euratom.


European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom): 10th General Re-port on the Activities of the Community. [Brussels] 1967.
Documentation Attached to the 10th General Report on the Activities of the Community [section 1], 1967 (April).
“Euratom—Community in a Crisis.”Intereconomics, 1969, no. 4, pp. 106-08.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
After a two-year procedure, NEK received approval for Belene NPP in Brussels in December 2007 when the European Commission announced that it had "given a favorable opinion on the initiative, as required by the Euratom Treaty." According to the Commission's assessment, the selected project for Belene NPP includes protection against external risks, even earthquakes and plane crashes, but after the Fukushima nuclear disaster, the criteria for these protections have been raised.
I now explore possible ways of creating such a comprehensive institutional framework to regulate the development of nuclear fuel cycle activities in the Middle East, in particular ones based on the EURATOM Treaty framework.
Under the Euratom Treaty it is up to EU inspectors to check accounting records of the nuclear material and compare them with the results of on-the-spot inspections.
The proposed decision is based on Article 7 of the Euratom Treaty.
Under the Euratom Treaty, a new reactor at the Kozloduy NPP is also considered a new investment project and must be coordinated with the European Commission, Mediapool informs.
The prolongation of the framework programme for nuclear research (under the Euratom Treaty) gives member states an opportunity to review its scope: should it be limited to existing nuclear reactors or should research be focused on the design of new reactors?
Poiares Maduro, said no: under the Euratom treaty's article 196, the Brazilians would not be covered by EU rules designed to ensure an adequate supply of uranium in the EU, just because they had business relations with an EU company.
The European Parliament failed to adopt, on 7 April, a joint motion that effectively called for the 1957 Euratom Treaty to be brought under ordinary legislative procedure.
Indeed, asked whether under article 75 of the Euratom treaty, any export of uranium is covered by EU controls, if a similar consignment of material is to be returned to the exporter in the future, the advocate general said a liberal rule could be applied: not if the material returned "corresponded in quality and quantity".
Parliament, which under the Euratom Treaty only has a consultative role in nuclear matters, debates, on the morning of 6 April, the issue of nuclear safety following the Fukushima disaster in Japan.