Both the Eurocommunist
critics of dialectical materialism and the dogmatists accept an idealized description of science as an unproblematic progressive, objective, and liberating force.
But at the same time it has sought to challenge traditional left politics by claiming that a programme of the left never fully pre-exists independently of the movement --something which holds true whether we conceive the movement towards a different society in terms of a long process of evolutionary changes within capitalism, or in terms of a more condensed period of rupture with the capitalist system--or as something in between (intermediate 'ruptures' along the path to socialism, as left Eurocommunists
used to argue).
They include an unusually wide cross-section of society: workers and intellectuals, former government officials as well as student leaders who used to oppose them, Marxist socialists, Eurocommunists
, liberals and devout Christians, both Protestant and Catholic.
These tensions came to a head in the wake of the crushing of the Prague Spring, which the Eurocommunists strongly condemned.
Clearly, for all their protestations of political independence, and despite their criticisms of 'actual existing socialism', Eurocommunists everywhere had never really overcome their illusions in communism as it was practised in the Soviet bloc.
Despite the best efforts of its enthusiastic supporters, Eurocommunism proved incapable of sustaining convincing political momentum, and increasingly its ambitions revealed a threatening disconnect between the pluralist, participative strategies of the Eurocommunists and the continuing assertion of the apparent 'indispensability' of communist party agency).
7) For French communists, the party's backing for the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, combined with its equally robust condemnation of the militancy of French students and strikers at home, positioned the PCF in direct opposition to the Eurocommunist dynamic.
15) The eurocommunists could count on the help of the Romanian communist party, and the orthodox communists in Romania therefore abandoned their base to the 'reformists'.
The fall of the Greek military junta in 1974, and the legalisation of the communist party, sealed the outcome of the struggle between the eurocommunists and orthodox communists for the sole right of representation in favour of the traditionalists.
This elusive and promising concept, though it never developed--unfortunately for the Italian left perhaps--nevertheless probably had some links with the subsequent strategies adopted by Berlinguer and Eurocommunists
strategies suggested how to combine different forms and levels of political activity towards progressive ends.
This assessment does not explain why support for the historic left (both in the form of the pro-Soviet KKE and of the Eurocommunist
KKE Esoterikou) remained static (or even declined in the latter case) throughout this period, and it also ignores the fact that PASOK's profile had undergone a process of tactical adaptation as its prospects for gaining power were becoming evident.