(1883–1957) surgeon; born in Chicago. After taking his M.D. from Rush Medical College (Chicago) (1907), he spent most of his career as chairman of the department of surgery at Washington University (St. Louis) (1919–51). An expert thoracic surgeon, he was the first to successfully remove a lung in fighting cancer (1933) and he developed the technique of cholecystography. Insisting on high standards in the medical profession and with no tolerance for mediocrity, he took a stand in private practice against unethical medical practices such as fee splitting. He was instrumental in founding the American Board of Surgeons (1937) and he was active as a medical editor and writer.