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an arrangement by which people work at home using a computer and telephone, accessing work-related materials at a business office, or transmitting materials to an office, by means of a Internet connection; it is also known as telework. Telecommuting hours can range from the occasional morning or afternoon to nearly full-time work. Although the term "telecommuting" was coined in the early 1970s, the practice only became popular in the 1990s as personal computerspersonal computer
(PC), small but powerful computer primarily used in an office or home without the need to be connected to a larger computer. PCs evolved after the development of the microprocessor made possible the hobby-computer movement of the late 1970s, when some computers
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 became more affordable and the InternetInternet, the,
international computer network linking together thousands of individual networks at military and government agencies, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, industrial and financial corporations of all sizes, and commercial enterprises (called gateways
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 became more accessible. Initially conducted using a modemmodem
[modulator/demodulator], an external device or internal electronic circuitry used to transmit and receive digital data over a communications line normally used for analog signals.
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 and telephone lines, telecommuting was made more feasible by cable and fiber-optic Internet connections. The development of lightweight portable computers and, later, smart phones also increased the ease of telecommuting. Government agencies and environmental groups have encouraged telecommuting because it reduces pollution, saves gasoline, and creates a less congested commuting environment. Companies have used telecommuting as a way of keeping valued employees who might otherwise be lost due to relocation or commuting stress. Although some people feel they can be more productive when working at home, others prefer an office environment.
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The practice of working at home and communicating with your fellow workers through the phone, typically with a computer and modem. Telecommuting saves the employee getting to and from work and saves the employer from supplying support services such as heating and cleaning, but it can also deprive the worker of social contact and support.
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Working at home and communicating with the office by phone, email and video conferencing. At the beginning of the 21st century, more than 30 million Americans were telecommuting at least one day a week. Also called "teleworking" and "e-working."

Telecommuting Goes Way Back
In the 1960s, information technology was one of the first industries to let employees telecommute. A small number of programmers worked at home one or more days a week; however, the only link to the office was the telephone. There were no modems attached to desktop computers because there were no desktop computers. A few programmers may have had the luxury of a terminal connected to a mainframe or minicomputer, but the majority wrote source code using pencil and paper. They later created the input by "punching cards" and testing the program at a local datacenter. See virtual company, telecity, ROWE and hoteling.

A Lot Has Changed
Today, telecommuters can emulate "being there" with devices such as the Double from Double Robotics. See telepresence. (Image courtesy of Double Robotics, Inc.,
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References in periodicals archive ?
Under the agreement, eWork said it will become Sony Ericsson's Managed Service Provider (MSP) for onsite consultants in Sweden.
By using ClairVia eWork, healthcare organizations and external labor firms interact together to automate the selection, approval, and deployment of qualified, cost-effective supplemental staff, and coordinate billing.
In addition, the company's board of directors set new financial targets for the period 2016 to 2020 under which eWork will generate average yearly sales growth of 20% and EPS will increase by an average of 20% per year.
Nordic consultant broker eWork announced on Thursday that it has signed a letter of intent with Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, stating that it will become Sony Ericsson's Managed Service Provider (MSP) for onsite consultants in Sweden.
The Spanish brand will ework alongside the Barefoot Foundation, created by Shakira when she was just 18, to help provide education for children living in extreme poverty.
eWork Scandinavia AB (STO:EWRK.ST), a complete consultant supplier, announced on Wednesday that it plans to establish operations in Poland.
The selected suppliers are: CCC Group, AcandoFrontec AB, Accenture AB, Artic Group AB, CapGemini Sverige AB, Cybercom Group Europe, Dati Exigen Group, EDS AB, eWork AB, Know-IT AB, Sigma AB, TietoEnator Oy, Wipro Limited and WM-data AB.
eWork Scandinavia AB: (STO:EWRK.ST), a complete consultant supplier, on Wednesday reported diluted EPS after tax of SEK2.43 for the full year 2014, from January 2014 to December 2014.
eWork Scandinavia AB (STO: EWRK.ST), a consultant broker in the Nordic region, announced on Wednesday the appointment of Zoran Covic as new president and CEO of the company.
TELECOMWORLDWIRE-18 May 2000-Telia helps fund new eWork Exchange Inc branch in Sweden (C)1994-2000 M2 COMMUNICATIONS LTD