Excavation


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excavation

[‚ek·skə′vā·shən]
(archeology)
Process of removing earth, stone, or other materials covering the remains of ancient civilizations.
(civil engineering)
The process of digging a hollow in the earth.
An uncovered cavity in the ground.

Excavation

The removal of earth from its natural position; the cavity that results from the removal of earth.

Excavation

 

the process of removing rock or earth from a solid, broken, or unconsolidated layer by means of an excavator, bulldozer, scraper, or similar machine. In earthwork practice, the term “excavation” may also include the entire work cycle, that is, digging, transportation, and dumping of the earth with excavators.

Soft, loose, and dense rock is usually excavated directly from the solid formation by successive removal of layers of ground; rock that has been broken up beforehand is excavated from piles or loosened layers. Three types of excavation are distinguished according to the mutual position of the face and the horizon on which the machine is working: the face may be above or below the machine horizon, or a combination of the two arrangements may be used. Because digging is the principal component of the process of excavation, it is conventional to describe the process with respect to the specific resistance to digging. This quantity is affected by the physicomechanical properties of the rock or earth, the type of excavating machine used, the design and dimensions of the working member, and the procedure followed in working the face.

REFERENCES

Dombrovskii, N. G. Ekskavatory. Moscow, 1969.
Rzhevskii, V. V. Protsessy otkrytykh gornykh rabot, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Beliakov, Iu. I., and V. M. Vladimirov. Sovershenstvovanie ekskavatornykh rabot na kar’erakh. Moscow, 1974.

IU. D. BUIANOV

excavation

excavation
1. The removal of earth from its natural position.
2. The cavity resulting from the removal of earth.
References in periodicals archive ?
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CNA learned that due to the continuous rainfall, the CMP teams working at the excavation sites have faced difficulties during the last two weeks because of the excess quantity of water and mud.
'Stone excavation has happened in that area since the French Protectorate period.
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OSHA inspectors visited the company worksite and found employees preparing an excavation for a new underground storage tank.
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In the letter, the PDA claimed to have registered a first information report against the utility provider for an 'unauthorised excavation of the road'.
Excavation of crop marks on top of the hill revealed an enclosure of Roman/Iron Age date.
Further excavation would help determine in which era the site fell, she said.
The Ministry of Heritage and Culture (MHC) and the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) are conducting the excavations.