Excavation

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excavation

[‚ek·skə′vā·shən]
(archeology)
Process of removing earth, stone, or other materials covering the remains of ancient civilizations.
(civil engineering)
The process of digging a hollow in the earth.
An uncovered cavity in the ground.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Excavation

The removal of earth from its natural position; the cavity that results from the removal of earth.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Excavation

 

the process of removing rock or earth from a solid, broken, or unconsolidated layer by means of an excavator, bulldozer, scraper, or similar machine. In earthwork practice, the term “excavation” may also include the entire work cycle, that is, digging, transportation, and dumping of the earth with excavators.

Soft, loose, and dense rock is usually excavated directly from the solid formation by successive removal of layers of ground; rock that has been broken up beforehand is excavated from piles or loosened layers. Three types of excavation are distinguished according to the mutual position of the face and the horizon on which the machine is working: the face may be above or below the machine horizon, or a combination of the two arrangements may be used. Because digging is the principal component of the process of excavation, it is conventional to describe the process with respect to the specific resistance to digging. This quantity is affected by the physicomechanical properties of the rock or earth, the type of excavating machine used, the design and dimensions of the working member, and the procedure followed in working the face.

REFERENCES

Dombrovskii, N. G. Ekskavatory. Moscow, 1969.
Rzhevskii, V. V. Protsessy otkrytykh gornykh rabot, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Beliakov, Iu. I., and V. M. Vladimirov. Sovershenstvovanie ekskavatornykh rabot na kar’erakh. Moscow, 1974.

IU. D. BUIANOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

excavation

excavation
1. The removal of earth from its natural position.
2. The cavity resulting from the removal of earth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This also means that it would take one more month of excavation to find any such evidence.
An excavation project has been under way at the site since 1996.
They had been making excavations to lay pipes, when the detection was made around 2.45 pm on 20 December.
Several sections of the media claimed that the ASI began excavation work after seer Shobhan Sarkar dreamt that 1,000 tonnes of gold is buried under the ruined fort of King Raja Rao Ram Bux.
In view of the facts that the design of the double-row support structure is complicated due to the interaction between the outer and the inner walls, therefore, there is a need to model the excavation using a two-dimensional finite element method to provide an insight to study and understand the behavior of the special structure and the interaction between the two walls.
"During this year's excavations which started on July 15, we discovered an obsidian which is used as scalpel in surgeries.
The No 1 pit is said to contain about 6,000 life-sized Terracotta figures, more than 1,000 of which were found in previous excavations.
The head of the British museum delegation, Claude Doumit Serhal, told The Daily Star that archaeological teams would also conduct excavation works at the neighboring site of Sandaqli in order to conduct comparative research among the two sites' layers.
This has allowed excavation efforts to resume on the pristine layers at the base of the hill, which are believed to house an abundance of historical and archeological artifacts.
Part 652 provides guidance for the three types of protective systems (sloping and benching, shoring and shielding) used in excavations. All are designed to prevent cave-ins, are dependent on the soil type where the excavation is occurring, and should be overseen by a competent person.
Their "soft" or "non-destructive" excavation capability is what sets vacuum excavators apart from other machines that dig in the earth and what has made them the preferred method for potholing, a requirement on most projects where there is excavation in areas where utilities are buried in the ground.
Mapping out subsurface features with radar enables scientists to focus their excavations more narrowly than they ever could before.