executive order

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executive order,

in the United States, official document initiated and signed by the president containing directives concerning how the executive branch shall carry out its responsibilities under the laws and Constitution; similar orders also may be issued by the governors of states. Executive orders express the president's priorities for how best to use the federal government's powers and resources, and often are used to establish a new approach for dealing with politically contentious issues after a change in administrations. Once an executive order is signed by the president, it is numbered and published in the Federal Register, the daily journal of the U.S. government, which makes its directives legally binding on the employees and agencies of the executive branch; prior to the 20th cent. executive orders were not numbered. Executive orders cannot be used to make new laws or allocate new funds, although already available money may be reallocated to fulfill an executive order. They are subject to review by the courts, and Congress can overturn a president's executive order with two-thirds support from the Senate and the House. A sitting president can also issue a new executive order that nullifies one issued by a previous president.

Probably the best-known executive order is President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation,
in U.S. history, the executive order abolishing slavery in the Confederate States of America. Desire for Such a Proclamation

In the early part of the Civil War, President Lincoln refrained from issuing an edict freeing the slaves despite
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 (1863). Among other notable executive orders are President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1942 order during World War II that authorized the internmentinternment,
in international law, detention of the nationals or property of an enemy or a belligerent. A belligerent will intern enemy merchant ships or take them as prize, and a neutral should intern both belligerent ships that fail to leave its ports within a specified time
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 of U.S. citizens of Japanese ancestry and President Dwight Eisenhower's 1957 order that sent federal troops into Little Rock, Ark., to enforce the desegregation of its public schools.

Other types of executive actions include presidential memorandums, which are similar to executive orders and also need to be published in the Federal Register in order to be legally binding. Memorandums, however, are not numbered, and sometimes are not published, in which case they remain guidelines. Presidential proclamations and national security directives are other ways in which presidents may take unilateral action; presidential proclamations, for example, have been used to establish national monuments and to acknowledge the celebration of Thanksgiving Day.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
Manila Mayor Francisco 'Isko' Moreno Domagoso issued on Tuesday his first executive order for the implementation of an 'open governance' policy in Manila.
Phil Murphy issued an executive order reversing two Christie-era rulemaking processes aimed at eliminating regulations on businesses a move hailed by environmentalists but which drew wariness from business advocates.
"The actions and policies addressed in these Executive Orders continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States," the notice signed by the US President says.
President George Manneh Weah has issued Executive Order #93, extending tariff suspension on rice in a bid to keep the nation's staple affordable on the Liberian market.
But, the plaintiffs, in a motion of injunction pending appeal, want an order of the court restraining the President and the AGF or any of their agents from enforcing, executing or any other manner whatsoever giving effect to the Presidential Executive Order No 6, pending the determination of their appeal filed on Monday at the Abuja Division of the Court of Appeal against the judgment of the trial court.
When Trump signed a 27 January executive order banning the entry of citizens from Yemen, Somalia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Sudan and Libya, including permanent US residents, it was seen as an implementation of his campaign promise.
20): After his inauguration, President Trump signed an executive order for "minimizing the economic burden" of ObamaCare.
At the same time, the president issues more executive orders giving agencies additional authority to act.
ACA is monitoring federal agency actions as they work to comply with the President's Executive Orders.
Manila: President Rodrigo Duterte has signed the executive order for the implementation of the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act, aimed at improving transparency in transactions involving the government.
Doctrines that Negotiate the Relationship of Executive Orders

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