Experimental Medicine, Institute of

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Experimental Medicine, Institute of


(full name, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR), a diversified scientific research institution that deals with theoretical aspects of medicine. Located in Leningrad, the institute was founded in 1890. In 1932 it was reorganized as the A. M. Gorky All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine, and two years later it moved to Moscow. In 1944 the Leningrad branch became an independent scientific research institute under the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977 the institute had the following departments: physiology (named in honor of I. P. Pavlov), human neurophysiology, ecological physiology, pharmacology, the physiology of visceral systems (named in honor of K. M. Bykov), atherosclerosis (named in honor of N. N. Anichkov), general pathology, virology, pathological anatomy, embryology, and microbiology and immunology. It also had laboratories of biochemical genetics, cytology, experimental histology, and the physiology of memory-control mechanisms. The most important areas of research are atherosclerosis and the role of memory (as developed by the individual and as inherited from his parents) in the mechanisms of normal and pathological reactions. The institute has a graduate program and the right to confer the degrees of candidate and doctor of sciences.

Among those who have been associated with the institute are I. P. Pavlov, S. N. Vinogradskii, M. V. Nentskii, D. K. Zabolotnyi, N. P. Kravkov, E. S. London, V. A. Engel’gardt, N. N. Anichkov, S. V. Anichkov, and D. A. Biriukov. The institute was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1966.

Experimental Medicine, Institute of


(full name, A. M. Gorky All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine), a scientific research institute that was organized under the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR in 1932 in Leningrad in order to carry on comprehensive research on both the healthy and ill and to advance medical science.

Branches of the institute were opened in Moscow and Sukhumi in 1933. In 1934 the institute was transferred to Moscow, and in 1936 it became part of the People’s Commissariat for Public Health of the USSR. Among the prominent Soviet scientists who worked in the institute were N. N. Anichkov, K. M. Bykov, A. A. Zavarzin, N. K. Kol’tsov, M. P. Konchalovskii, P. S. Kupalov, B. I. Lavrent’ev, G. F. Lang, D. N. Nasonov, A. D. Speranskii, andN. G. Khlopin.

In 1944 the institute was reorganized as the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. At the same time many of its departments became institutes of the academy, and the Leningrad branch became the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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