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(1) A specialist (in, for example, an area of science, technology, or art) who is invited to help study problems whose solution requires specialized knowledge (see).
(2) In law, a person who has specialized knowledge and is asked to conduct an examination (see). The request may come from agencies of investigation, the court, other governmental agencies (such as an arbitration tribunal), or nongovernmental agencies (such as an arbitration board). In the USSR the work of an expert is regulated by procedural legislation and statutes that pertain to the institutions conducting examinations. Questions that are decided by an expert should not involve the juridical aspects of a criminal or civil case. Conclusions are presented by the expert in written form. The expert may be held criminally responsible for knowingly giving a false conclusion or for refusing without reason to present his conclusion.