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(or fillers), materials that are added to plastics, rubber, adhesives, paints and varnishes, and other polymeric materials to facilitate their processing and impart to them the required properties (strength or electrical and frictional properties), as well as to reduce costs. The most widely used extenders for polymeric materials are finely dispersed solids, such as carbon black, silica, chalk, kaolin, talc, mica, and graphite. Glass, asbestos, and synthetic fibers, as well as monocrystalline fibers of some metals (“whiskers”), are also used. Sheet materials (paper or fabrics) are used in the production of laminated plastics; gases (CO 2, N2), volatile hydrocarbons, or water are used for foam plastics.

Extenders for polymeric materials that improve the performance of products are usually called active (reinforcing) extenders; those that have no such effect are called inactive (inert) extenders. Fiber and sheet extenders are also called reinforcing extenders. The most important active extender is carbon black, which is used in types of rubber derived from most synthetic elastomers to produce strong and wear-resistant products. The extenders are combined with polymers in a variety of ways, such as mixing in a roller mill or impregnation with polymer solutions or melts. The content of extenders in polymeric materials varies greatly; in highly extended compositions it may even exceed the polymer content.


Tekhnologiia plasticheskikh mass. Edited by V. V. Korshak. Moscow, 1972.
Koshelev, F. F. , A. E. Kornev, and N. S. Klimov. Obshchaia tekhnologiia reziny, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1968.
Entsiklopediia polimerov, vol. 2. Moscow, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
A new market study, titled "Discover Global Video Extender Market By Upcoming Trends, Growth Drivers and Challenges" has been featured on WiseGuyReports.
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Here, the incorporation of chain extenders into PA6 promotes the formation of the y crystalline phase [18, 19], The chain extenders slightly decreased the crystallinity of PA6 suggesting the packing of PA6 chains to form a crystal lattice is hindered by the chain extension and/or branching.
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The reference system gateway and extender components are a combination of NXP's LS1012A and LS1043A SoC Platforms, and Celeno's 11ac and 11n Wi-Fi chipsets, enabling a range of configurations from cost-effective 2x2 Wi-Fi extenders up to high-performance 4x4 Wi-Fi gateways and extenders.
Either physicians are giving away a lot of income (not correctly billing incident to) or there are a lot of unsupervised extenders identifying suspicious lesions and performing surgery without formal training and direct supervision.
Higher percentage of NAR at 300 mOsm/kg may be due to relatively hypertonic extenders comparing to the ~293 mOsm/kg; reported by Ibrahim et al.

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