Caption: FIGURE 2: The bypass performed on the skin by 6 mm PTFE graft between both external carotid arteries
It is able to detect plaque at the bifurcation of the internal and external carotid arteries
, and is used to define vascular anatomy proximal and distal to a stenotic plaque.
After the bulb, the CCA terminates as it divides into 2 branches, the internal and external carotid arteries
. The internal carotid artery (ICA) supplies blood to the brain, and the external carotid artery (ECA) supplies blood to the face, scalp and skin.
The adventitial coat of the internal carotid artery was significantly thicker than those of the common carotid and external carotid arteries
, with no significant difference noted between the latter arteries.
 Three patients diagnosed with migraine pain originating in the dilated terminal branches of the external carotid arteries
, and who were also under treatment for grand mal epilepsy, underwent surgical cauterisation of the relevant vessels.
The ICA and external carotid arteries
were hard to free from surrounding tissues, and a carotid artery bypass was also not easy to put into the carotid artery.
8: Atheroma- a nodular radiopaque mass or as two radiopaque vertical lines inferiorly (1.5-4.0 cm inferior to the angle of the mandible) & posterior to the C3 and C4 vertebral bodies, separate and distinct from other radiopaque structures and at the bifurcation of the Internal and External Carotid Arteries
Notably, this mass did not appear to be hypervascular, and it did not displace the internal and external carotid arteries
, which would have suggested a carotid-body tumor.
A subsequent carotid ultrasound/Doppler study showed normal right common (Figure 1), internal (Figure 2), and external carotid arteries
. The left common (Figure 3) and external (Figure 4) carotid arteries were markedly small, but with expected normal Doppler waveforms.
The anterior circulation consists of the common carotid arteries, which bifurcate in the neck at the angle of the jaw to form the internal and external carotid arteries
. The left common carotid artery originates from the aortic arch, while the right common carotid artery originates from the innominate artery.
After conventional disinfection, an anterior midline incision was made, and the left CCA and internal and external carotid arteries
* In this present case, the right common carotid artery bifurcates into internal carotid and external carotid arteries
at the level of upper lamina of thyroid cartilage, the internal carotid artery being anteromedial to the external carotid artery [FIGURE 5A, 5B].