extracellular

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extracellular

[¦ek·strə′sel·yə·lər]
(biology)
Outside the cell.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Rat livers are perfused successively with Gd-DTPA that distributes into the extracellular space and Gd-BOPTA that enters into hepatocytes after extracellular distribution.
Dietzel, "Ionic changes and alterations in the size of the extracellular space during epileptic activity," Advances in Neurology, vol.
have demonstrated that collagen induces intracellular HSP27 phosphorylation in platelets and that phosphorylated HSP27 molecules are primarily secreted into the extracellular space [28].
These findings suggest that oxidative stress induced by Q7 blocked the release of intracellular calcium or caused calcium leakage from intracellular stores to extracellular space. This is in agreement with the inhibitory effect of quinone-related compounds (menadione) on the release of calcium from intracellular stores [46], by inhibition of sarcoplasmic calcium ATPase [47].
Zooxanthellae moved to the lateral or basal margins of the surface blastomeres and bulged into extracellular spaces or into the blastocoel.
Only one study reported that calcium binding may be involved in the activation of PAD4 and ROS may be involved in regulating PAD4 activation.[sup][19] Following chromatin decondensation, the loose chromatin mixes with the granular cytoplasm and various proteins, and then all of which are ejected into the extracellular space, forming NETs.
The analysis determined that the top 3 most highly ranked pathways in the brown module were labeled: extracellular region, proteinaceous extracellular matrix, and extracellular space. In the dark grey module, the top 3 pathways were response to drug, eosinophil chemotaxis, and eosinophil migration.
[K.sup.trans] (in [minute.sup.-1]) is the volume transfer constant of contrast agent from blood plasma to extravascular extracellular space (EES) reflecting both blood plasma flow and permeability, [v.sub.e] is the volume of EES per unit volume of tissue, and [k.sub.ep] (in [minute.sup.-1]) is the flux rate constant of contrast agent from EES to plasma and equal to [K.sub.trans]/[v.sub.e] [5].
However, it remains unclear exactly how alpha-synuclein gains access from the extracellular space to the cytoplasm of cells to act as a template for naturally occurring alpha-synuclein, causing the naturally-occurring protein to, in turn, misfold.
NAC is converted to cystine and allows for the uptake of cystine, a substrate for the glutamate-cystine antiporter causing the reverse transport of glutamate into the extracellular space. This then stimulates inhibitory glutamate receptors and thus reduces the release of glutamate from the synapses.
As a result, a small shift of potassium from the extracellular space to the intracellular space can cause a change in plasma potassium concentration.
Furthermore, horizontal cells may release internal GABA into the extracellular space due to sodium-dependent reversal of the transporters.

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