They describe the energy cycle, temperature, water in the atmosphere, global-scale winds, atmospheric-ocean interactions, air masses and fronts, extratropical cyclones
and anticyclones, thunderstorms and tornadoes, small-scale winds, weather forecasting, past and present climates, and human influences on climate.
In 2009 to date, AIR Worldwide has modeled the risk profile for eight securities covering North America and Europe, providing cover for such perils as tropical cyclones, earthquakes, extratropical cyclones
(winter storms), severe thunderstorms and wildfires.
There is no consensus in the scientific community concerning the impact of increasing temperatures on weather-related perils such as tropical and extratropical cyclones
, severe thunderstorms and floods.
That includes forecasting extreme events, improving agriculture models, and improving our understanding of tropical and extratropical cyclones
and hurricanes," said Kirschbaum.
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones
Atmospheric conditions for extratropical cyclones
tend to be complex, with multiple high pressure ridges, low pressure troughs, fronts, and strong jet stream winds, all interacting to produce damaging winds.
A significant amount of these exposures are in Europe, a region subject to severe winter windstorms, more technically referred to as extratropical cyclones
Traditional parameterized models simply cannot capture the complexity of European extratropical cyclones
," said Dr.
In 1999, ALERT was expanded to include European extratropical cyclones
This unique approach results in a highly realistic view of the risk from extratropical cyclones
The model is the first of its kind to include the transition of hurricanes into extratropical cyclones
, which are storms that particularly affect the Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras and exhibit different characteristics from pure hurricanes, with distinct implications for loss estimates.
While there are certainly ways in which global warming could potentially affect the frequency and severity of tropical and extratropical cyclones
, there is still no scientific consensus on what the impact will be.