Extravasation


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extravasation

[ik‚strav·ə′sā·shən]
(geology)
The eruption of lava from a vent in the earth.
(medicine)
The pouring out or eruption of a body fluid from its proper channel or vessel into the surrounding tissue.

Extravasation

 

the accumulation of blood that has flowed out of the blood vessels into the body cavities or surrounding tissues.

Extravasation may occur when the walls of the vessels are destroyed by a mechanical injury or a pathological process (for example, tumor). It may also occur through an uninjured wall, when the permeability of the wall is increased (for example, under the influence of certain chemical substances). The discharged blood may either permeate the tissues affected by the extravasation or form a circumscribed accumulation, called a hematoma. The significance of extravasation is determined by dimensions, rapidity of development, and site of formation. When the process is minor it is resorbed without treatment. If encapsulated or suppurative, it often requires special treatment. Because extravasation may lead to the destruction of tissue, it is especially dangerous in the brain (insult).

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As the literature shows that the extravasation type is associated with more recurrence.
When damaged vasculature is detected during angiography, PTAE may be recommended even if there is no active extravasation, because these damaged arteries may start bleeding actively when the blood pressure returns to normal.
A decrease in the MNL filtration in the cortical area, especially the peritubular region, and the brush-border loss of proximal tubules in DIPC+IR group was observed, while on the other hand, erythrocyte extravasation in the cortex was not observed compared to the IR group.
(3) This technique involves manipulation of the stent under visualization to assess for contrast extravasation. However, we recommend this be performed in a hybrid operating suite because of the risk of hemorrhage requiring emergent surgery or endovascular rescue.
Totect can limit the damage caused by extravasation without the need for surgery and enable patients to continue their essential anti-cancer treatment.
A conventional cystogram demonstrated massive extraperitoneal extravasation at the bladder neck (Figure 7).
The following three characterized current extravasation (-) (a low risk of rupture): (1) history of repeated bleeding, (2) no active current bleeding, and (3) indiscernible low-echoic intrauterine area.
(The latter fluid collection communicated with the second portion of the duodenum on CT and would later be identified as the IPDA pseudoaneurysm.) There was extravasation of contrast within this latter fluid collection, suggestive of active bleeding (Figure 1).
History has shown that the use of metal needles for cannulation has contributed to extravasation of the vessel, thrombus, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm and stenosis formation and also patient anxiety when starting haemodialysis, particularly related to the pain of needle insertion (Lee Barker & Allon, 2006; Marticorena & Donnelly, 2016; van Loon et al., 2009).
At the end of BC/Ibu treatment at 120 days, the area of the wound was 8.48% smaller, with no exudation, odor and satisfaction report due to the absence of pain, ease of application of this cover and maintenance of the dressing without extravasation.