Humber Summit highlighted in red for the "Local Employment" indicator boxplot (before extreme outlier
The main result of Monte Carlo simulations concerning the performance of the single extreme outlier
discordancy tests could be stated as follows: N2 [congruent to] N15 > N14 > N8.
The virus A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-664/2010 that carried the H275Y mutation was predictably identified as an extreme outlier
for peramivir with a 415-fold increase in [IC.sub.50] values; the remaining viruses showed no increase.
Each of these failed grades (6 total) were extreme outliers
, which suggested that the assignment of a failed grade was accurate and not due to false classification (assignment of a fail grade when the true assignment should have been a pass grade).
Without censoring.--Mill B had the narrowest confidence intervals (excluding the extreme outlier
) when compared with the other five mills for the complete data set.
As a result, blacks have become an extreme outlier
-- the only major racial group showing well-above-average approval.
A sample was considered an extreme outlier
if its [IC.sub.50] value was 10 x higher than the mean values for sensitive strains with >3 interquartile range from the 25th and 75th percentiles in the box-and-whisker plot analysis (9).
If an extreme outlier
value is added at either end, the line is affected significantly, but the R-square can actually increase because, with the new extreme value, the total squared differences increase and the line tries to minimize the total differences.
When the hypothesized relation between the dependent and independent variable is a general effect and not an outlier effect (i.e., driven by rarely occurring events or circumstances), outlier bias can be mitigated by either dropping the most extreme outliers
or employing outlier robust regressions that place less weight on extreme observations than OLS does.
As always, the individual firm data provide more perspective than any national average, and extreme outliers
can be illuminative.
While more than 93% of Fitch's rating changes were subtle in scope (one to two notches), there were two extreme outliers
. The first was a provider, Lexington Medical Center, which Fitch downgraded six notches due to a GASB 68 pension liability factored into its analysis.
In my opinion, policies based on extreme outliers
can have serious and perhaps unforeseen implications.