Fars

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Fars

(färs) or

Farsistan

(färsĭstän`), province (1991 pop. 3,543,828), c.51,500 sq mi (133,400 sq km), SW Iran. ShirazShiraz
, city (1991 pop. 965,117), capital of Fars prov., SW Iran, at an altitude of c.5,200 ft (1,580 m). It is a commercial and industrial center and has long been known for its wines, carpets, and metalwork.
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 is the capital and chief city, located in an oasis occupying a valley c.6 mi (10 km) wide and 20 mi (32 km) long. The province is largely mountainous. Grain, cotton, tobacco, opium, fruit, and wine are produced along the coastal Persian Gulf area. Livestock is raised. Oil and natural gas reserves have stimulated the local economy. Industries include food processing and the manufacture of chemicals, fertilizers, and textiles. The population is mostly organized by tribe; the leading tribes are the Qashqai and the Khamseh. One of the most historic regions of Iran, Fars is more or less identical with the ancient province of Pars, which was the nucleus of the Persian Empire. The ruins of PasargadaePasargadae
, capital of ancient Persia under Cyrus the Great. Its ruins lie 54 mi (87 km) by road NE of Persepolis, in present Iran. The buildings of Cyrus include a temple in the form of a tower; the remains of his palace; and his tomb, a structure of white stone 18 ft (5.
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 and PersepolisPersepolis
[Gr.,=city of Persia], ancient city of Persia, ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid empire under Darius I and his successors. The administrative capitals were elsewhere, notably at Susa and Babylon.
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, early Persian capitals, are in Fars. The Arabs changed the name Pars to Fars after they conquered the region in the 7th cent.

Fars

 

a historical region in southern Iran. It was known in antiquity as Persis in ancient Greek and as Parsa in Old Persian; Fars is an Arabic form of the latter. In the seventh century the Arabs conquered Fars and destroyed its capital, Istakhr. In the late seventh century the region became a center of the Kharijite movement. Fars served as the nucleus of the states of the Buyid, Salghurid, Muzaffarid, and Zand dynasties, all of which located their capital in Shiraz.