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(1) During the French Revolution, members of volunteer associations (fédérations) formed to protect the revolution from internal counterrevolution and foreign intervention. The fédérés came to Paris from the provinces. Among the most famous are those from Marseille, who took part in the popular uprising of Aug. 10, 1792, and who brought their revolutionary hymn, “La Marseillaise,” to Paris.
(2) During the Hundred Days of 1815, members of volunteer detachments that were formed to repulse foreign intervention and prevent another restoration of the Bourbon monarchy.
(3) National guardsmen who united on the eve of Mar. 18, 1871, to form the Republican Federation of the National Guard, which defended the Paris Commune of 1871.