Because the delays are nested in persons, adding up the P-indicator variable for each participant results in a variable (F-indicator) containing the individual frequency of instances in which a delay was identified as procrastination.
We computed the binary P-indicator as well as the F-indicator quantifying the individual frequency of instances in which a delay was procrastination.
Among those participants who delayed the execution of a task (n = 65), the F-indicator (M = 0.91, SD = 1.52, range: 0 - 10) reveals that for 33 participants (41.3%), none of the observed delays was considered procrastination.
To explore convergent validity, we correlated the F-indicator with the aggregate scores of the TPS-d and APSI-d subscale.
The modest positive association between the F-indicator and the TPS-d and APSI-d aggregate scores resembles the associations usually found between behavioral measures and self-report scales assessing procrastination (e.g., Krause & Freund, 2014; Moon & Illingworth, 2005; Steel et al., 2001; Tice & Baumeister, 1997).