ligand

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Related to FASL: Fas protein, Fas receptor

ligand

(lĭg`ənd), charged or uncharged molecule with one or more unshared pairs of electrons that can attach to a central metallic atomatom
[Gr.,=uncuttable (indivisible)], basic unit of matter; more properly, the smallest unit of a chemical element having the properties of that element. Structure of the Atom
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 or ionion,
atom or group of atoms having a net electric charge. Positive and Negative Electric Charges

A neutral atom or group of atoms becomes an ion by gaining or losing one or more electrons or protons.
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 to form an aggregate known as a complex ion (see chemical bondchemical bond,
mechanism whereby atoms combine to form molecules. There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are strong enough to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to be regarded as an
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). Some ligands that share electrons with metals form very stable complexes. Some common bases that act as ligands are water and ammonia molecules and halide, hydroxide, acetate, cyanide, thiocyanate, and nitrite anionsanion
, atom or group of atoms carrying a negative charge. The charge results because there are more electrons than protons in the anion. Anions can be formed from nonmetals by reduction (see oxidation and reduction) or from neutral acids (see acids and bases) or polar compounds
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. These ligands are monofunctional, i.e., they are attached by one unshared pair of electrons during complexing. Polyfunctional ligands, which bind to the metal ion with two or more pairs of electrons, are called chelates (see chelating agentschelating agents
. Certain organic compounds are capable of forming coordinate bonds (see chemical bond) with metals through two or more atoms of the organic compound; such organic compounds are called chelating agents.
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). Ethylenediamine-tetraacetate, a commonly used chelating compound, has six pairs of electrons to bind to metal ions. Electron-donating functional groups containing nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorous, or carbon may act as ligands in complex biological systems. For example, in enzymes that need complexed metal ions to function, mercapto (sulfur-containing) groups and amino (nitrogen-containing) groups act as chelating agents; these groups fix the metal ion in a specific position. Other biologically important molecules, such as chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and heme, also have nitrogen-containing groups that donate electrons and have a chelating function.

ligand

[′lī·gənd]
(chemistry)
The molecule, ion, or group bound to the central atom in a chelate or a coordination compound; an example is the ammonia molecules in [Co(NH3)6]3+.
References in periodicals archive ?
Given the involvement of both MMP-9 and -2 in FasL shedding, we next examined whether the AREG-mediated increase in both gelatinases indeed induces shedding of memFasL.
On the other hand, BDE-47 increases the expression of FAS, FASL, and caspase-8, starting up an extrinsic pathway.
FasL [0,1] FasL * 0 Casp8 [0,1] Casp8 * 0 Casp3 [0,1] Casp3 * 0 Apop 0 Bid [0,1] tBid 0 DNA [0,1] DNAdamage 0 ATR [0,1] ATR * 0 p53 [0,1] p53 * 0 Bax [0,1] BCl2 [0,1] Cytcmit [0,1] Cytc 0 Casp9 [0,1] Casp9 * 0 granB [0,1] granB * 0 Casp10 [0,1] Casp10 * 0 FasL *.Casp8 0 Casp8 *.Casp3 0 ATR *.p53 0 p53 *.Bax 0 Bax.Bak 0 p53 *.BCl2 0 BCl2.Bax 0 Cytc.Casp9 0 Casp9 *.Casp3 0 granB * .Casp10 0 Casp10 *.Casp3 0 Casp8 *.Bid 0 tBid.Bax 0 granB * .Bid 0 All values are in nondimensional form.
(7) It is found more than perforin/granzyme B and soluble FasL in SJS/TEN patients' blister (2-4 times more).
Fasl is a Graduate Research Assistant and Andrew G.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proteins: FHIT, E-cadherin, [alpha]-catenin, [gamma]-catenin, cathepsin B, EGF, HER-2, MMP-9, MCM-2, Bak, Bax, BID, Bcl-XL, p53, FasL, Bcl-2, caspase-8, procaspase-3 in gastric cancer cells, depending on the type of tumor by Lauren classification.
Natural substance connected with Fas protein its ligand (FasL) belongs to the TNF[alpha] group (Poradin, Salmasi, Cazimirskiy, 2006).
In these studies, we found that IL-12 inhibited TNF-[alpha]-mediated osteoclastogenesis by inducing apoptotic changes in osteoclast precursor cells through interactions between TNF-[alpha]-induced Fas and IL-12-induced FasL. We also investigated whether IL-12 inhibits mechanical tooth movement.
However, both concentrations of TCE did suppress expression of Fasl, the gene that encodes for the ligand for Fas, and an important mediator of activation-induced apoptosis.
Additionally, mutations in cytokine receptors and costimulatory molecules, such as CD28/B7 [13], and polymorphisms in genes associated with apoptosis, such as Fas, FasL, and Bcl-2, have been implicated in disease pathogenesis [14].