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Fès (fĕs) or Fez (fĕz), Arab. Fas, city, N central Morocco. In a rich agricultural region, it is connected by rail to Casablanca, Tangier, and Algeria. The city is noted for its Muslim art and its handicraft industries. It gave its name to the brimless felt caps that were formerly characteristic items of Muslim dress in the Middle East. Fès was the capital of several dynasties and reached its zenith under the Merinid sultans in the mid-14th cent. It declined under the Sa'adi and Filali dynasties, who chose Marrakech as their capital. The ulama, or religious council, of the city often played a role in the selection of the sultans of Morocco.

Fès consists of the still vibrant old city (or medina; founded 808) and the new city (founded 1276), connected by walls. The city has more than 100 mosques; the mosque containing the shrine of Idris II, founder of the old city, is one of the holiest places in Morocco. The Qaraouiyine (or Qarawiyyin) mosque is the center of a Muslim university that was especially influential in the Middle Ages and has one of the world's oldest libraries. Fès is the destination of pilgrims who visit the many tombs of saints and scholars. Nearby are the thermal baths of Sidi Harazem.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Fez), a city in Morocco, in the northern foothills of the Middle Atlas Range. Capital of Fès Province. Population, 325,300 (1971). Fèz is the main trade and industrial center and an important transportation junction in central Morocco. The city has textile, flour, and vegetable-oil mills, vegetable canneries, metalworking enterprises (including munitions factories), and wood-products enterprises; it is a major center of cottage and handicraft production.

Fès was founded in 789. In the ninth and tenth centuries, with interruptions, it was the capital of the Idrisid state. From the 13th to 15th centuries it was the capital of the Marinid state. In 1911, Fès was occupied by French troops. Subsequently it became an important center of the Moroccan national liberation struggle; it was the site of an uprising against the French protectorate in 1912 and of mass disturbances and demonstrations in 1936, 1937, 1951, and 1954. After Morocco won independence in 1956, Fès became one of the country’s major economic and cultural centers.

The architectural monuments in Old Fès (Fas el-Bali) and New Fès (Fas el-Jedid, developed since 1276), which adjoins Old Fès on the west, include the Karaouine Mosque (859), the fortified walls of Fas el-Jedid, the Attarine Madrasa (1323–25), and the Bu-Inaniyah Madrasa (1355). Since 1916 a modern city has developed along a radial plan in a southwesterly direction. The chief administrative and public buildings are located in the new section of Fès. There is a museum of Moroccan art, where local antiquities and fine handicraft works are displayed. The Muslim Karaouine University (founded 859) is located in Fès.


Burckhardt, T. Fès, Stadt des Islam. Olten, 1960.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Long-term treatment with all the used doses of FESE and also 50 mg/kg/ day captopril significantly lowered plasma MDA equivalents in the SHR.
Characters, therefore, like Makia Wokwo, Mboh Fese, and even Sanga Tete (Nkuta), the fraudulent seer in whose disjointed psyche, sex looms so large, constitute a negative consciousness.
In summer 2009, NYSE Euronext implemented FESE tick size table four in full i.e.
For example, under the current FESE table two --used by most MTFs -- a stock movement from a[logical not]10 to a[logical not]10.01 will automatically result in a tick size change from a[logical not]0.005 to a[logical not]0.01.
Speaking at a recent FESE conference, Olivier Lefebvre, vice-president of Euronext, said that he would be "very circumspect" at this stage.
"All investors want to hide their trading intentions, but discover the intentions of others, which is why transparency needs to be tightly controlled by regulators," says Burcak Inel, deputy secretary general at FESE. "Applying OTC freedoms to exchange trading prevents companies and investors from obtaining a fair value for stocks and increases trading costs.
In addition, Deirdre Somers, CEO of the Irish Stock Exchange, has been appointed as vice president of FESE, taking over from Michael Buhl, CEO of the Central and Eastern European Stock Exchange Group.
But Gregor Pozniak, a former financial analyst and now Deputy Secretary-General of the Federation of European Stock Exchanges (FESE) has questioned the benefit of the Directive in the context of the transatlantic dialogue.
Members of the Federation of European Securities Exchanges (FESE), the trade body that represents 53 exchanges, are close to fulfilling their promise to improve post-trade data quality, but further work on trade flags is still required, according to BurAs.ak Inel, deputy secretary, FESE.
The FESE study (entitled "The Effect of the Introduction of a Threshold in the new EU Prospectus Directive") was requested independently by British MEP Chris Huhne (ELDR, UK) and by the European Commission to settle their dispute over the Commission's proposal to update the original Prospectus Directive.The Commission has argued that every quoted company in Europe should have to publish an EU prospectus with annual updates.