Fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF4
), Laminin [alpha]1 (LAMA1) and Interleukin-6 (IL6) genes are known to have specific functions through early embryo development (Desai et al., 1999; Hallmann et al., 2005; Sanna, 2009; Valdez-Magana et al., 2014).
Lef1 is important for reciprocal epithelial mesenchymal interactions because it induces Fgf4
expression in the knot, which leads to Fgf3 expression in the mesenchyme and Shh in the epithelium [Kratochwil et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2005].
"Perhaps, the new dog-related fgf4
findings could give researchers a new route to look for," she added.
The mechanism of over expression of both FGF4
and PDGF, recently described in the literature, may well be copy gain at the genomic level.
In case of short-legged dogs, the inserted retrogene results in the overproduction of the FGF4
protein, which according to researchers could turn on key growth receptors at the wrong times during foetal development.
A part of the Sox2 target genes overlaps with the Oct4 target genes, in particular, genes such as Fgf4
, Utf1, Fbx15, and Nanog [47, 54-56].
Moreover, several signaling molecules, such as Shh, FGF4
, FGF9, BMP4, and BMP7, as well as Wnt10a/b, are restrictedly expressed in the enamel knot.
In addition, FGF4
directs growth factor receptor-bound protein2 (Grb2) to bind SHP2 and further activates ERK pathway which is sufficient for differentiation for the essential primitive endoderm lineage from ESCs .
Jin, "The regulatory role of histone deacetylase inhibitors in Fgf4
expression is dependent on the differentiation state of pluripotent stem cells," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.
It has been shown that AT-MSC have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in the presence of certain growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and fibroblast growth factors 1 and 4 (FGF1, FGF4
Histological examination and gene expression analysis of ovarian tumor tissues have shown abundant fibrous stroma formation, overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4
), and stem cell-associated genes in samples enriched with CSCs in the presence of fibroblasts .
RNAi-mediated downregulation of Gomafu led to downregulation of Oct4, along with decreased expression of Oct4-driven pluripotency markers, such as Sox2, Klf4, Gdf3, Fgf4
, and Dppa3/Stella.