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hemorrhage (hĕmˈərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemia, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shock. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aid.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The escape of blood from the vascular system.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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Headquartered in West Des Moines, FMH provides private and federal crop insurance, reinsurance products and services, as well as farm and ranch insurance that includes auto, property, and liability coverage.
Continued Strong Operating Performance Expected: The rating incorporates Fitch's expectation that FMH will demonstrate continued strong operating performance consistent with Fitch's base case with operating EBITDA margins at or close to 9%.
He joined FMH as a programmer, held a variety of positions of increasing responsibility, and was named to his current position in 2010.
Departments where the latest NSI occurred were majorly medicine and allied including emergency department, intensive care unit (ICU), outpatient department (OPD) in both hospitals; at FMH 27(52.9%) and 58(68.2%) at Jinnah Hospital, followed by surgery and allied including obstetrics and gynaecology; 24(47.1%) at FMH and 27(31.8%) at Jinnah Hospital.
China Huadian Corporation is one of China's five largest electricity companies and quickly made a decision to adopt FMH's High Efficiency AQCS system, which includes the latest MHPS technology.
David Miles, CEO of Miles Capital said, 'We are very excited at the opportunity to work with FMH. Farmers Mutual Hail has a rich, 120-year history of protecting the farmers of America by providing crop insurance, and we are honoured to be able to assist in their mission.
(9) A standard approach to assess the severity of FMH is to estimate the percentage of the fetal blood volume represented by the FMH.
Money raised by FMH pays for doctors, nurses and medical equipment at the Zimbabwean hospital, plus projects helping families affected by HIV and AIDS.
BRIGHT FUTURES: Graduates, from left, Laura Wordingham, James Neal and Frances Dyson were the three lucky applicants out of 400 to get places on FMH Syupport''s graduate placement programme
The Saida Waheed College of Nursing Fatima Memorial Hospital (FMH) and Allama Iqbal Medical College (AIMC) organised seminars to mark this day.
(2) We found that the Rosette and acid elution techniques were effective at detecting a fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) requiring additional units of Rh immune globulin (Rhlg; sensitivity 1.0 and 0.96, specificity 0.75 and 0.92, respectively).
He said in an interview with FMH magazine: "Have Daniel or I ever hit on Emma?