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FORTRAN:see programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages
All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
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a programming language; more precisely, a family of such languages that evolved from the original version developed in 1957 in the USA under the supervision of J. W. Backus. The name derives from “formula translation,” referring to the translation of programs written in FORTRAN into machine language. FORTRAN contains statements for assignment, conditions, cyclic operation, subroutines, storage allocation, and real and complex variables, which may have logical, integer, real, or complex values; it also includes highly developed statements for input-output. FORTRAN is the most widely used programming language for scientific and engineering calculations. The language’s specifications are fixed in several national and international standards.
REFERENCESPervin, Iu. A. Osnovy FORTRANa, Moscow, 1972.
Germain, C. Programmirovanie na IBM/360, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from English.)
Fortran (programming textbook). Kiev, 1976.
American Standard FORTRAN: Approved March 7, 1966. New York, 1966.
There have been a great many versions.
The name is often written "FORTRAN", harking back to the days before computers were taught about lower case, but ANSI decreed, in about 1985 via the ANSI FORTRAN Technical Committee TC, that it should be "Fortran".
See also: Fortrash.
FORTRAN(FORmula TRANslator) The first high-level programming language and compiler, developed in 1954 by IBM. It was originally designed to express mathematical formulas, and although it has been used for business applications, it is primarily used for scientific, engineering and mathematical problems. FORTRAN IV is an ANSI standard, but FORTRAN V has various proprietary versions. The following FORTRAN example converts Fahrenheit to Celsius:
write(6,*) 'Enter Fahrenheit ' read(5,*) XFAHR XCENT = (XFAHR - 32) * 5 / 9 write(6,*) 'Celsius is ', XCENT stop end