89; why Torres indicates simple intervals directly in the figured bass is not clear--would not simple intervals normally be inferred?); and Torres's version of fabordon
On some feasts and special days of the liturgical calendar, such as Holy Saturday, at least three types of vocal polyphony are specified as occasion demanded--contrapunto, fabordon
and canto de organo.
In addressing the apparent contradiction between the prohibition of polyphony in Philip's letter of foundation of the Escorial and evidence of its performance there during Philip's reign (and even in his presence), Noone proposes that the acceptable types of polyphony performed by monk musicians during this period were, first, fabordon
and improvised counterpoint, and second (but related, Noone suspects, to techniques of improvisation), a simple style of composed polyphony as represented by the music of the monk Martin de Villanueva.
At least the bajon plays the psalms in fabordon with the choir
In the first category, music specific to the day, we would put the hymn and Magnificat of Vespers, the psalms of Vespers and Terce (probably in fabordon), villancicos and processional hymns, the litany on Rogation days, the Salve Regina during Lent, the Te Deum laudamus when it was needed, and any required items from the Mass Ordinary of the day.
The sixteenth century is well represented by Antonio de Cabezon, Tomas de Santa Maria, Francisco de Soto, and Francisco de Peraza, although, regrettably, the five pieces by Cabezon (four duos and a fabordon
) do not include any of his major compositions (such as his tientos or his sets of variations).
The watermark is of little help here, being of a common type which has been found in several countries.(8) We can, however, be certain that the copyist was a Spaniard.(9) He gives his nationality away both by heading Prospero Santini's Salve regina 'fabordon
a bersos' (i.e.
The same question is raised by items 7, 8 and 14, although in item 7 it is clear that the choir (coro) singing in fabordon
after the soloist could not have been formed by only four singers.
Within his presentation of the harmonization of repeated notes (unisonar), he includes a chapter with examples of fabordones
in the eight modes.(16) The fabordones
, or chordal harmonizations of the psalm tones, 'usually begin with repeated notes, and for this reason we include them here', he declares.(17) In the second place, passages in consonances can also be included, according to Santa Maria, in the course of a fantasia.(18)