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The prediction of personality functioning from facial appearances and expression.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the science of antiquity and of certain later periods, the study of the direct connection between the outward appearance and character of a person or an animal.

Physiognomy is rooted in the ancient practice of incorporating experience of life into folklore and the lore of sorcerers, fortune tellers, and the like. Physiognomic observations became part of the cultures of the ancient East; in the classical era they were systematized in the same way as other scientific disciplines of the time. Proportions of the face and body, characteristic gestures and facial expressions, and types of posture, build, and carriage of the body were described and classified.

In antiquity physiognomy was associated with the theory of temperaments and with Hippocrates’ theory of the dependence of an individual’s or a people’s physical and mental makeup on climate. Physiognomy was also related to the system of moral types (“characters”) worked out by Theophrastus and other students of Aristotle and to the use of types in classical literature, as exemplified by the character masks in New Comedy and the techniques of verbal portraiture in classical rhetoric, historiography, and biography.

Physiognomy was based on the notion prevalent in antiquity that the actions and behavior of every person are rigidly determined by his inborn character. According to Heraclitus, a person’s character was his “demon,” that is, his fate; similar statements were made by Epicharmus, Democritus, and Plato. It was believed that every person’s association with a moral type was just as clear and obvious, just as tangible and biological, as his physical features.

The classical tradition of physiognomy was reflected in the culture of Byzantium and of medieval Western Europe; it had a particularly strong influence on Arab science and on the cabala of Jewish mysticism. Some Western European scientists, for example, G. della Porta in De humana physiognomonia (1586), resumed the study of physiognomy between the 16th and 18th centuries. However, the establishment of new scientific criteria in the 17th and 18th centuries relegated physiognomy to the realms of common sense and artistic intuition. In his Physiognomical Fragments (1775–78), J. K. Lavater failed in an attempt to restore physiognomy to the status of a science. Similar attempts by such epigones of German romanticism as R. Kassner and L. Klages also failed to achieve acceptance. Klages’ graphology and characterology may be mentioned in this connection.


Scriptores physiognomonici graeci et latini, vols. 1–2. Edited by R. Foerster. Leipzig, 1893.
Evans, E. C. Physiognomies in the Ancient World. Philadelphia, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
[check] Task card #2: Clock face reading 9:30 and a "What time is it?" prompt
According to sources, a two-member team of foreign experts, along with six Pakistanis, visited domestic lounges of the Islamabad airport to install the face reading cameras.
It has been suggested that the Italian will be out of a job before the Blues face Reading tomorrow.
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Tottenham now look forward to face Reading on Sunday, and will then take on Serie A side Lazio at home in their first Europa League match.
Ladbrokes not to win in August - they also face Reading (home), Sheffield Wednesday (home), Crystal Palace (away) and Leicester (home) in the first month of their second division season.
It means Vogel is in contention to face Reading at the Madejski Stadium.
Boro are hopeful that the striker will be available to face Reading on Saturday, though the injury is slow to shake off.
Allardyce, whose team travel to face Reading in the Premiership today, said: "There is no way Michael can leave unless we want him to.
Birmingham City face Reading in the FA Cup for the second consecutive season this afternoon although unlike like last year, they will start as William Hill's 7-5 favourites.
Your Face Tells All is a straightforward guide to physiognomy, the ancient Chinese art of face reading. Diagrams and black-and-white photographs, as well as face readings of well-known celebrities walk the reader through what the physiognomy of the eyes, lips, cheeks, etc.