. We contacted 5 additional female experts in the research and teaching of sexual and reproductive health and adolescence, whose inclusion criteria included having a postgraduate degree in health (specialization, masters) and 10 or more years of experience.
The results of the content and face validity
showed that the items were comprehensible and culturally-tailored to the Iranian female adolescents.
 Oral examinations are appealing because of their high face validity
, their flexibility, and the possibility that they measure aspects of clinical competence that are perhaps not tapped in written examinations.
While content validity requires a detailed description of the content to serve as a checklist when evaluating an instrument, face validity
is a less systematic method of establishing whether an instrument's items align with the intended content (McMillan & Schumacher, 2010; Trochim, 2006).
These software issues may have led to the low face validity
reported in the present study (5.3/10).
However, they have low face validity
in view of the lack of similarity with living tissues since the elastic properties of the tubes do not correspond to the properties of living vessels.
Finally, NIC intended the ERI to have high face validity
with straightforward instructions and item content for the areas assessed.
Two registered nurses developed the questionnaire and a panel of 13 (eight registered nurses, three patients, the unit manager, and an external research professional) reviewed the instrument for content and face validity
. The survey was administered from February 1 to March 1, 2017.
measures the realism of various components and aspects of the simulator, whereas the content validity assesses the pedagogical value and training effectiveness of the simulation platform .
addresses phenomenological similarities between a model and a human disease, but superficial similarities do not reliably imply the same underlying mechanisms.
In order to do this we conducted two studies; the first examined the face validity
of the ASSIST in a sample of Pacific People resident in New Zealand in order to determine if any modifications to the existing ASSIST questionnaire (Version 3.0) were required to enhance its appropriateness for this population; the second study was a formal examination of the concurrent, construct and discriminative validity of the ASSIST questionnaire that had been modified to reflect the results obtained from the first study.
Our study utilized measures with face validity
that examined e-cigarette product characteristics, including type of product (disposable, tank system, liquid refills), nicotine content, flavour, etc., which were visible features directly observed on product packaging by our trained research assistants.