Karl Kraus

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Kraus, Karl

 

Born Apr. 28, 1874, in Gitschin, now Jičín, Czechoslovakia; died June 12, 1936, in Vienna. Austrian writer, publicist, and philologist.

In 1897, Kraus wrote a satirical lampoon, “Destroyed Literature,” against the Viennese decadents. He published and edited the journal Die Fackel (1899–1936), in which he carried on polemics with bourgeois philosophical, political, and aesthetic ideas. He published many essays and articles on literature and language and collections of satirical feuilletons and aphorisms about international and Austrian life. His major work was the philosophical antiwar drama The Last Days of Mankind (1918–19). In his lampoon “The Invincible Ones” (1928), Kraus glorified the Viennese workers who, in the summer of 1927, stormed a reactionary law court. Kraus’ verse, written in the spirit of Goethe’s philosophical lyric poetry, often approached the impressionist poetry of C. Morgenstern and D. von Liliencron. His style is filled with metaphors and contrasts.

WORKS

Werke, vols. [1–9]. Munich, 1955–61.

REFERENCES

Iggers, W. A. Karl Kraus: A Viennese Critic of the Twentieth Century. The Hague, 1967. (Bibliography, pp. 230–45.)
Engelmann, P. Dem Andenken an Karl Kraus. Vienna [1967].
Kuhn, C. Karl Kraus als Lyriker. Paris, 1968.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kraus loved paradoxes and published a magazine, Die Fackel, full of them.
Halliday, Karl Kraus, Franz Pfemfert and the First World War: A comparative study of "Die Fackel" and "Die Aktion" between 1911 and 1928, Passau, 1986; Ursula Walburga Baumeister, Die Aktion 1911-1932.
Wittgenstein's view of Freud was tempered by his own reappraisal of positivism, and his view on the purity of language came from the Viennese satirist and critic Krauss who in the journal Die Fackel wrote: "Psychoanalysis is that spiritual disease of which it considers itself to be the cure." Krauss believed reason to be instrumental and values to arise out of creative imagination.
The Greek words from Revelation that the King James translators rendered into English as "lamp" and "trumpet" appear in Protestant Martin Luther's German translation as "Fackel" and "Posaunen," "torch" and "trombone" (Celan xxxi).
Kraus, especially through the publication of a literary and political review, Die Fackel (The Torch), offered critical, satirical, and sometimes brutal commentary on fin de siecle Vienna, leading up to the rise of German fascism.
Kraus published Die FackeL (The Torch), a satirical journal largely written by Kraus himself.
His primary vehicle, the magazine Die Fackel (The Torch), was both the toast and scorn of Austria.
Wittgenstein's view of Freud was tempered by his own reappraisal of positivism and his view on the purity of language came from the Viennese satirist and critic Krauss who in the journal Die Fackel wrote 'Psychoanalysis is that spiritual disease of which it considers itself to be the cure.' Krauss believed reason to be instrumental and values to arise out of creative imagination and Wittgenstein came under his spell in seeking to clarify and purify language, linking language to ethics as a critique of culture.
His vicious attacks on prominent citizens, his unscrupulous gossip mongering and shameless attention seeking prompted the Austrian writer Karl Kraus to launch a ferocious counterattack in his journal Die Fackel (The Torch).
'burn (wood, etc.) light (fire lamp)' (also noted as lup'anzunden'), Yasin Burushaski lap and lalap 'shine, burn, light up; to beam'; Brokskad lupras 'to burn, to kindle' (with -as infinitive and perhaps with an -r- causative), mel[??]p 'flame' (a synonym compound with first component borrowed from Tibetan me 'fire') and meleps 'fire fly, glow worm' (like preceding but with (unclear?) extension) and probably tralupis 'to shine' (with unclear first component tra-); Indus Kohistani l[??]p-l[??]ph ho- 'to light up, shine, sparkle, glitter', Waigali luppa(h) 'lamp, torch' and lap'a 'Fackel', Khowar lapeik 'to glitter' and Yidgha-Munji lapoir 'glitters'.