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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the Roman Empire, a group of people involved in organizing equestrian contests.

The term was later transferred by scholars studying Byzantium to the sports organizations, known in Byzantine cities from the fourth century A.D., that arranged and conducted circus and sports events.

Large groups of fans, called demes, adhered to the various factions. There were usually four factions in each city, and they, like the demes, were named according to the color of the costumes worn by their charioteers: the Blues (Veneti), Greens (Prasinoi), Whites (Leukoi), and Reds (Russi). The most important were the Veneti and Prasinoi of Constantinople, who played an important political role in the fifth through seventh centuries. They lost their political importance around the middle of the seventh century and subsequently concerned themselves solely with the organization of sports competitions and festive ceremonies in Constantinople.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
'Only two of three BIFF factions because one of the factions have pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror organization,' Sinarimbo said.
Burovs' situation is better because support to him has been promised by Harmony faction, while four lawmakers expelled from Harmony do not exclude their support to Burovs, which would ensure 32 votes out of 60.
The simmering row between a faction led by BAK chairman John Kameta and another led by his deputy Albert Matito has boiled over, with each group coming up with its own plans for the team selection tournament, the Kenya Open Boxing Championship.
The two factions also elected Elom David and Tony Egwu as Treasurers.
Jayarajan was set up on Tuesday to resolve the ongoing row between the Orthodox and Jacobite church factions.
'We recognise there are factions. In any community there are factions.
The parliamentary majority coalition has been enlarged with the fourth faction without a dissolution and formation of a new coalition.
March 19, 2018 (KHARTOUM) - The opposition Sudan Call has launched a mediation to heal the rift between the two factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) stressing that it stands at the same distance from the two parties.
ISLAMABAD -- In a bid to safeguard seats in the upper house of the parliament, the two factions of Muttahida Qaumi Movement-Pakistan on Friday announced to jointly contest the Senate elections.
KARACHI -- Differences between the two factions of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement-Pakistan (MQM-P) have given birth to a third group, comprising 15 members, it was learnt on Thursday.
In a general council meeting on September 12, the merged factions of EPS and OPS had passed a resolution stating that the AIADMK would be a unified faction and shall retrieve the two leaves symbol and the AIADMK name.
Summary: Tensions in Sidon's Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp are worrying residents, but a new initiative by Azzam al-Ahmad, a member of the Fatah Movement's Central Committee who is in charge of managing the file of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, aspires to draw warring factions together to implement a joint security plan.