factory acts

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factory acts:

see labor lawlabor law,
legislation dealing with human beings in their capacity as workers or wage earners. The Industrial Revolution, by introducing the machine and factory production, greatly expanded the class of workers dependent on wages as their source of income.
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Factory Acts

 

laws regulating working conditions in factories and plants in the era of industrial capitalism. The emergence and development of factory acts resulted from the economic and political struggle of the working class against capitalist exploitation.

The first such laws were the Factory Acts of 1802 and 1819, which were passed by the Parliament of Great Britain. The acts regulated the working conditions of children and adolescents in the textile industry; for example, children under nine were forbidden to work, and those between the ages of nine and 16 were allowed to work only a 12-hour day and were not permitted to work at night. In 1847 the British Parliament passed a law, effective in 1848, limiting the workday for adolescents and women in the textile industry to ten hours. During the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, factory acts were gradually extended to sectors of industry other than textile manufacturing. In the mid-19th century, under the influence of the growing working-class movement, factory acts were also adopted in other Western European countries. For example, in 1841 a child and adolescent labor law was passed in France, and in 1869 an industrial statute was adopted in Germany.

In prerevolutionary Russia, factory laws were not enacted until the end of the 19th century, and the adoption of each piece of legislation was preceded by bitter strikes. In 1882 the law On Minors Working in Plants, Factories, and Manufactories was promulgated. It prohibited children under 12 from working; in addition, adolescents from 12 to 15 years of age were not allowed to work more than eight hours a day or to work at night, on Sundays, and on holidays. A provisional law of 1885 prohibited women and adolescents 15 to 17 years of age from working in textile mills at night. In 1886 the following two laws were promulgated: Rules for Hiring Workers in Factories, Plants, and Manufactories and Special Rules for Relations Between Factory Owners and Workers. In 1897 the length of the workday was established by law for the first time and was set at 11½ hours. A detailed analysis of the class content of the factory laws in Russia was provided by V. I. Lenin in Explanation of the Law on Fines Imposed on Factory Workers (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th éd., vol. 2, pp. 15–60) and The New Factory Law (ibid., pp. 263–314).

The factory acts of all capitalist countries generally applied to only some working people and contained numerous stipulations that made it possible for employers to evade the intent of the laws.

In the era of imperialism, the sphere of legislative regulation of the working conditions of hired labor has been broadened, and the system of such legislation has come to be known as labor leg islation. By its very essence, the labor legislation of capitalist countries has a clear antiworker bias.

References in periodicals archive ?
The representatives and office-bearers of tobacco sector and tobacco growers demanded the government to take action against illegal closure of factories under 1934 Factory Act.
A notification was issued late evening that 27th December would be a holiday for workers of private sector under the Factory Act. This original notification contained a serious error and then a new notification was issued under the name of Secretary Labor Department.
In which year was the Factory Act passed in Britain, to improve conditions for children working in factories?
Stressing the need of developing a model law for child rights he said there is dichotomy in our jurisprudence regarding the age limit fixed for child labour, as factory Act allows that a child can work at the age of 16 but Constitution of Pakistan prohibits a child to work below the age of 18 years.
In the meanwhile, the company has been slapped with a showcause notice by the Maharashtra Government's factory inspector for the violation of Section 54 of the Factory Act. Under the act, no worker shall be allowed or required to work for more than nine hours a day in a factory, unless to facilitate changing of shifts.
"[President] Hollande raised the prospect of a 'factory act' during his election campaign this year, which would force companies to seek buyers before closing profitable plants," the article reports, adding that such an act may not be in line with the French constitution or EU laws." The two sides have since settled.
1844 The Factory Act restricted female workers to a 12 hour day, and children between the ages of eight and 13 to a day of six and a half hours
Owen's social engineering there helped secure the passage of the Factory Act 1819, which laid down stricter conditions on the employment of children.
Chapter 5 examines the effects of the Factory Act of 1833 and subsequent child labor laws.
All the levies and laws like Factory Act, Social Security, Insurance, EOBI, education Cess, in short, every law of levy is applied upon or paid by the Employers on behalf of Employees.